环保疏浚对洱海西沙坪湾底栖动物群落结构的影响
Effects of Dredging on Zoobenthos Community Structure in West Shaping Bay, Erhai Lake
投稿时间:2020-10-09  修订日期:2021-04-02
中文关键词:西沙坪湾  环保疏浚  水质指标  底栖动物  群落结构
英文关键词:West Shaping Bay  environmental dredging  water quality indicators  zoobenthos  community structure  zoobenthos diversity
基金项目:大理市罗时江入湖河口环保疏浚一期工程监测评估及研究示范项目
作者单位
杨桐 大理市洱海保护管理局云南 大理 671000 
尹成杰 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072中国科学院大学北京 100049 
过龙根 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072滇西应用技术大学云南 大理 671006 
李宏亮 大理市洱海保护管理局云南 大理 671000 
余德琴 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
杨姣姣 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072中国科学院大学北京 100049 
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中文摘要:
      研究环保疏浚对富营养化湖泊底栖动物群落结构的影响,探究湖泊生态修复的有效性。在西沙坪湾从南到北中心水域设5个样点,其中疏浚区3个,未疏浚区2个。从2016年6月开始,水质每月调查一次;底栖动物样品于底泥疏浚前、疏浚中、疏浚后共采集5次。对比分析沙坪湾底泥疏浚前后、疏浚区与未疏浚区的水质指标、底栖动物群落结构及生物多样性指数。研究发现:底泥疏浚前,疏浚区与未疏浚区采集到的底栖动物仅有霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri )、苏氏尾鰓蚓 (Branchiura sowerbyi) 和摇蚊属一种(Chironomus sp.) 3种。在底泥疏浚过程中,疏浚区的底栖动物种类仅有4种,而未疏浚区的底栖动物已出现8种;疏浚结束后,与疏浚前和疏浚中相比,疏浚区的底栖动物种类明显增加,且种类多于未疏浚区。底泥疏浚前,疏浚区底栖动物生物量为0.731 g/m2,密度为560个/m2;疏浚结束后,疏浚区底栖动物生物量和密度分别为13.07 g/m2、1 826.7个/m2,均高于疏浚前和疏浚中,且高于未疏浚区。此外,疏浚区的Simpson多样性指数和Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数的平均值分别由0.187、0.380增加到0.325、0.688,疏浚后生物多样性指数高于疏浚前。RDA分析结果表明,硝态氮、铵态氮和溶解氧是影响底栖动物群落分布的主要因子,硝态氮、铵态氮与摇蚊属一种(Chironomus sp.)、湖球蚬(Sphaerium lacustre)呈显著负相关;溶解氧与前突摇蚊属一种(Procladius sp.)呈显著正相关。实施环保疏浚工程能改善洱海湖湾底栖动物群落结构,并促进底栖动物群落多样性的增加。
英文摘要:
      West Shaping Bay is a shallow bay at the north end of Erhai Lake. An environmental conservation project of sediment dredging was carried out in the bay from September 2016 to February 2017. In this study, water quality indicators, zoobenthos community structure and diversity indices before, during and after sediment dredging of West Shaping Bay, as well as for the dredged and un-dredged areas, were compared and analyzed. The aim was to explore the effects of environmental dredging on zoobenthos community structure in eutrophic lakes, and analyze the relationship between zoobenthos community structure and physicochemical factors. A total of 5 sampling sites were set in West Shaping Bay, 3 sites in the dredged area and 2 in the un-dredged area. Monthly water quality monitoring and zoobenthos collection before (June), during (September, December) and after (March, June) sediment dredging was conducted from June 2016 to June 2017. Before dredging began, only Limnodrilus Hoffmeisteri (Claperede,1861), Branchiura sowerbyi and Chironomus sp. were collected. During the dredging period, 4 zoobenthos species collected in the dredged area and 8 species in the un-dredged area. After dredging,zoobenthos species increased significantly in the dredged area, and the number of species also increased in the un-dredged area. Zoobenthos biomass and density were 0.73 g/m2 and 560 ind/m2 before dredging and increased to 13.07 g/m2 and 1 827 ind/m2 after dredging, much higher than those before and during dredging, and higher than in the un-dredged area (15.12 g/m2 and 360 ind/m2 ). The mean values of the Simpson diversity and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices also increased after dredging, from 0.187 to 0.325 and from 0.380 to 0.688, and the biodiversity index was also higher after dredging. Redundancy analysis shows that NH4+-N, NO3--N and DO were the primary environmental factors affecting zoobenthos distribution. The negative correlations of Chironomus sp. and Sphaerium lacustre with NH4+-N and NO3--N were significant, as was the positive correlation between Procladius sp. and DO. These results clearly show that environmental dredging can increase zoobenthos diversity and improve zoobenthos community structure in Erhai Lake.
杨桐,尹成杰,过龙根,李宏亮,余德琴,杨姣姣.2022.环保疏浚对洱海西沙坪湾底栖动物群落结构的影响[J].水生态学杂志,43(2):77-85.
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