扎龙湿地植被覆盖度及其分布结构对水文气象要素的响应
Response of Vegetation Cover and Structure to Meteorological and Hydrologic Factors in Zhalong Wetland
投稿时间:2020-04-23  修订日期:2020-09-25
中文关键词:扎龙湿地  像元二分法  植被覆盖度  水文气象要素
英文关键词:Zhalong wetland  dimidiate pixel model  vegetation cover  meteorological and hydrological factors
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0404503);国家自然科学基金(51625904);中国水科院基本科研业务费项目(WR0145B522017)
作者单位E-mail
王伟泽 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038清华大学 水利水电工程系北京 100084 wangwziwhr@126.com 
胡 鹏 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038  
王建华 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038  
杨泽凡 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038  
刘欢 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038  
杨钦 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京 100038清华大学 水利水电工程系北京 100084  
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中文摘要:
      扎龙湿地位于乌裕尔河尾闾,是世界上现存最大的芦苇湿地,也是丹顶鹤等珍稀鸟类重要的繁育场所和栖息地。本次研究基于遥感、气象和水文数据,通过像元二分法反演植被覆盖度,分析扎龙湿地核心区2005-2017年植被覆盖度时空分布特征,探究径流、降水和气温3项水文气象要素对湿地不同等级植被覆盖度的影响,为科学开展湿地生态需水核算和芦苇植被保护提供参考。结果表明,湿地中高植被覆盖和高植被覆盖区域主要分布于乌裕尔河来水和人工补水形成的河道及周围地区,2005-2017年,中高植被覆盖和高植被覆盖区域面积总体呈增长趋势,湿地植被生态质量整体改善。乌裕尔河来水及人工补水量对中高植被覆盖和高植被覆盖区域面积的增长起到显著促进作用,并且存在年际滞后性;温度升高有利于湿地核心区内植被覆盖度整体的提高,但促进作用并不明显;降水与湿地核心区植被覆盖无明显影响作用,乌裕尔河来水及人工补水量是影响扎龙湿地核心区植被覆盖度的主要因素。
英文摘要:
      The Zhalong wetland, located in the lower reaches of the Wuyuer River, is the largest reed wetland in the world and provides an important breeding site and habitat for rare birds such as Grus japonensis. In this study, we explored the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of vegetation cover in the core zone of Zhalong wetland for the period 2005-2017. The effects of runoff, rainfall and temperature on the proportions of different vegetation covers were analyzed based on meteorological and hydrological data. Vegetation cover was calculated using a dimidiate pixel model based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Landsat satellite images of the core area of Zhalong wetland. Meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from the Yian and Longanqiao hydrologic stations, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship of vegetation cover and meteorological/hydrological factors. Regions of medium-high and high vegetation cover were mostly distributed near the river channel created by water scouring from river inflow and a water diversion project. From 2005 to 2017, the area of medium-high and high vegetation cover regions increased, peaking in 2015 at 87.48% of the core area. Vegetation ecology in Zhalong wetland improved during the investigation period. Input of water from the Wuyuer River had a significant effect on vegetation cover in the core area. The quantity of inflowing water from Wuyuer River, supplemented by water from the water diversion project, was positively associated with high vegetation cover area the following year (r = 0.555,P<0.05). Vegetative cover is promoted by high inputs of water from Wuyuer River, but the positive response occurs the year after the increase in water quantity. Higher air temperature also promoted vegetation cover across the entire wetland, but the effect was moderate, and no significant effects of rainfall on vegetation cover were observed. Thus, the primary factor affecting vegetation cover in Zhalong wetland is the volume of water flowing into the wetland from Wuyuer River and the water diversion project. Our results provide a reference for estimating the ecological water flow required to support reed conservation and improve the ecological environment of Zhalong wetland.
王伟泽,胡 鹏,王建华,杨泽凡,刘欢,杨钦.2020.扎龙湿地植被覆盖度及其分布结构对水文气象要素的响应[J].水生态学杂志,41(5):89-97.
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