曹娥江流域鱼类资源调查
Current Status of Fish Resources in Cao'e River
投稿时间:2019-06-19  修订日期:2019-10-08
中文关键词:曹娥江  鱼类资源调查  生物多样性  资源保护
英文关键词:Cao'e River  fish resource investigation  biodiversity  resource conservation
基金项目:绍兴市科技计划项目(2018C20011);浙江省公益性技术应用研究计划(LGN19C130003)
作者单位E-mail
陈 超 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000 845407261@qq.com 
余理睿 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000  
冯志政 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000  
金叶飞 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000  
祝尧荣 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000  
任 岗 绍兴文理学院生命科学学院绍兴 浙江省 312000  
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中文摘要:
      调查评估鱼类资源,分析鱼类资源变动的原因,为鱼类资源保护提供科学依据。近30年来曹娥江流域水利工程建设、水域环境、渔业捕捞等影响鱼类生存的环境因素发生了较大的改变,迫切需要对流域内的鱼类资源现状重新进行调查研究。 2015-2018 年,在曹娥江上中下游 9 个采集点,利用流刺网和地笼捕捞鱼类并鉴定分析。结果表明,调查共获得鱼类 105 种,隶属于 13 目 26 科;其中,鲤形目种类最多,为65 种,占总种类数的 61.90%,优势种为鲢、麦穗鱼和子陵吻虾虎鱼。曹娥江水域鱼类群落Shannon–Wiener多样性指数为 1.9718,Simpson优势度指数为 0.3297,Pielou均匀度指数为 0.4237,Margalef种类丰富度指数为 10.5741。与历史记载比较,本次调查获得鱼类中肉食性鱼类比例减少、杂食性鱼类比例增加, Shannon–Wiener多样性指数和Pielous均匀度指数下降,鱼类群落结构的复杂性和稳定性降低,鱼类多样性下降。曹娥江流域鱼类资源保护措施建议:工农业、生活污水污染截污,水利工程科学调度,加强渔业管理,增加土著肉食性鱼类和经济鱼类放流品种。
英文摘要:
      Over the past 30 years, water environment deterioration, overfishing and construction of hydraulic projects in the Cao'e River basin have altered fish habitat, greatly affecting the species composition, structure and biodiversity of the fish community. It is thus urgent to assess the current status of fish resources in the basin. In this study,we evaluated fish resources in the Cao'e River basin based on investigations carried out from 2015 to 2018. Factors causing changes in fish resources were analyzed, aiming to provide scientific data to support rational conservation of fish resources. From May 2015 to November 2018, field studies were carried out at nine sampling sections using gill nets and cages. A total of 18,682 specimens were collected that included 105 species, belonging to 26 families and 13 orders. The number of Cyprinidae species was largest (65 species), accounting for 61.90% of the total species. Dominant species included Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Pseudorasbora parva and Rhinogobius giurinus. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H'), Simpson dominance index (λ), Pielou evenness index (J') and Margalef species richness index (D) of the fish community in Cao'e River basin were, respectively, 1.9718,0.3297,0.4237 and 10.5741. Based on comparisons with the historical record in "Zhejiang Animals Fauna: Freshwater Fish",the proportion of carnivorous fish species in Cao'e River has decreased, omnivorous fish species have increased,and the Shannon –Wiener diversity index (H') and Pielou evenness index (J') have both decreased. The complexity, biodiversity and stability of the fish community in the Cao'e River basin have all decreased, indicating that fish resources have declined since the early 1990s. Effective measures are crucial for protecting fish resources in Cao'e River: interception of domestic, industrial and agricultural waste water; science-based regulation of hydropower projects; and strengthened fishery management, including increased release of native carnivorous and commercially valuable fish species.
陈 超,余理睿,冯志政,金叶飞,祝尧荣,任 岗.2020.曹娥江流域鱼类资源调查[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):113-121.
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