张家口市河流筑坝与硬化的生态系统健康影响
Effects of Damming and Channel Hardening on River Ecosystem Health in Zhangjiakou City
投稿时间:2019-06-03  修订日期:2019-10-26
中文关键词:闸坝  河道硬化  河流生态系统评价  河流健康指数
英文关键词:damming  channel hardening  river ecosystem assessment  river health index (RHI)
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41771531);国家重点研发计划子课题(2016YFC0503007)
作者单位E-mail
鲍林林 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
 
baolinlindxs@126.com 
李叙勇 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
 
 
智仕杰 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
 
曹宸 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
 
 
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中文摘要:
      闸坝建设和河道硬化等水利工程措施在河流系统中的广泛应用,改变了河流原有的生态环境状况。本文以张家口市清水河—洋河干流5个不同程度筑坝与硬化的河段为研究对象,构建了包括河道结构、河床底质、水文特征、水质参数和水生生物五类指标的河流生态系统健康指数(RHI),评估了筑坝与硬化对河流健康的影响。结果表明,河道轻微疏浚或具拦砂坝河段的生态系统健康等级为好(HRI为30~40),具溢流堰河岸硬化河段为中等健康(HRI为20~30),筑坝和河床河岸全硬化的河段生态系统健康等级为差(HRI为10~20)。筑坝与硬化改变河流物理结构,进而影响河床底质组分和水文特征,其与RHI的变化显著相关(p < 0.05),是损害河流生态系统健康的主要原因;此外,总磷和有机质污染,及较低的水生生物多样性对河流的健康均有不利影响,仅在夏季植物大量生长和污染物质被稀释时,5个河段的RHI有所升高。可见,为了改善河流生态系统健康的状况,需要恢复自然的河岸和缓冲带,改善河流水动力,并加强外源污染控制。
英文摘要:
      Hydraulic engineering facilities, such as dam construction and channel hardening, are widely constructed in rivers across China. While these artificial control structures have large social benefits, they have dramatically altered river ecosystem. In this study, five segments of the main stem Qingshui and Yanghe Rivers in Zhangjiakou City, with different levels of damming and channel hardening, were selected for study. The effects of artificial structures on river ecosystem health were assessed using a river ecosystem health evaluation system developed as part of the investigation. The objectives were to provide scientific data to support ecological restoration and optimize resource management. The River Health Index (RHI) we developed included parameters characterizing river physical structure, channel substrate, hydrology, water quality and aquatic life and the index was used to assess the variations in ecosystem health of the five river segments. The river segment with only slight dredging and the segment with check dams were in good condition, with HRI values of 30-40. The river segment with weirs and hardened riverbank was in moderate condition, with an HRI value of 20-30, and the other two segments with dams and hardened riverbanks were in poor condition with the HRI values of 10-20. The construction of dams and hardening channels changed the physical structure of the river that, in turn, altered substrate composition and hydraulic condition. The variations in river physical structure, channel substrate and hydrology condition were significantly correlated with variations in RHI (p < 0.05), and were the primary factors influencing the quality of the river ecosystem. High concentrations of phosphorus and organic matter, and a low diversity of aquatic organisms also had adverse effects on the ecosystem health of the five river segments. RHI values in all five river segments increased during the summer, when aquatic plants are thriving and pollutants are diluted by higher flows. Therefore, to improve the quality of these two river ecosystems, efforts should be made to improve the hydraulic condition, restore hardened channels and buffer zones, and prevent pollutant inputs.
鲍林林,李叙勇,智仕杰,曹宸.2021.张家口市河流筑坝与硬化的生态系统健康影响[J].水生态学杂志,42(1):1-9.
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