天鹅洲长江段底栖动物的群落结构与季节变化
Community Structure and Seasonal Variation of Macroinvertebrates in the Tian-e-zhou Oxbow, Yangtze River
投稿时间:2019-04-30  修订日期:2021-01-22
中文关键词:底栖动物  群落结构  季节变化  生物多样性  天鹅洲
英文关键词:macroinvertebrate  community structure  seasonal variation  biodiversity  Tian-e-zhou Oxbow
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51279112,51409178);生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)
作者单位
龚 成 湖北长江天鹅洲白鱀豚国家级自然保护区管理处湖北 石首 434400 
池仕运 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079
 
夏 纬 长江航道局湖北 武汉 430060 
汪红军 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079
 
胡 俊 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079
 
陈 威 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079
 
胡菊香 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079
 
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中文摘要:
      通过探究长江天鹅洲白鱀豚国家级自然保护区长江段底栖动物的群落结构及季节变化,可为该区域水生生物的保育和管理工作提供基础资料和科学依据。2014-2015年,按季节在干流江段设置16个采样站位,进行底栖动物调查和水质理化特性检测,并同步收集当月水位信息。结果表明,4次调查共检出底栖动物53种,其中水生昆虫28种,软体动物9种,寡毛类9种,甲壳动物4种,其他类群3种,常见种为日本沼虾、钩虾、栉水虱、米虾、河蚬、淡水壳菜、多足摇蚊、环足摇蚊和齿斑摇蚊。底栖动物存在较为明显的季节演替,且种类组成较为简单,以小个体的物种和活动能力较强的甲壳类为主。低水位时,生境异质性的升高有利于底栖动物多样性的增加;而高水位时生境异质性的降低,则对底栖动物的多样性不利。水位的升高以及流量的增大,有利于活动能力较强的甲壳动物生存和扩散。底栖动物的密度、生物量以及多样性处于较低水平,与该河段地处下荆江、河道演变剧烈、生境不稳有关,密度水平与长江中游的沙市、黄石断面接近,表明目前底栖动物密度处于较低水平是一种常态现象。
英文摘要:
      The Lipotes National Natural Reserve of Tian-e-zhou Oxbow is located in the middle Yangtze River, with a length of 89 km. In this paper, community structure and seasonal variation of macroinvertebrates in the Tian-e-zhou Oxbow were investigated, aiming to provide data and a scientific basis for conserving and managing aquatic organisms. In October (autumn) of 2014, January (winter), May (spring) and July (summer) of 2015, a seasonal investigation of macroinvertebrates was carried out at 16 sampling sites, and physicochemical water quality parameters were monitored synchronously. Water levels were obtained from the hydrologic station near the reserve and included full data for the months when samples were collected. During the four surveys, a total of 53 macroinvertebrate species were collected: 28 aquatic insects, 9 mollusks, 9 oligochaetes, 4 crustaceans and 3 species from other groups. The common taxa were Macrobrachium nipponense, Gammarus sp., Asellidae sp., Caridina sp., Corbicula fluminea, Limnoperna lacustris, Polypedilum sp., Cricotopus sp. and Stictochironomus sp. The macroinvertebrate community presented obvious seasonal succession and was primarily composed of active, small bodied taxa and crustaceans. Taxa composition was simple in each season, with absolute dominance by aquatic insects (86.67% of total species) in spring, crustaceans in summer (88.81%) and autumn (75.80%), and mollusks 66.23% in winter. Low water levels increased habitat heterogeneity and increased community biodiversity, while high water levels had the opposite effect. A higher water level and discharge rate was beneficial to the survival and dispersion of strongly mobile crustaceans. The density, biomass and biodiversity of the macroinvertebrate community in the study area were low and closely related to severe channel alterations and unstable habitat in the lower Jingjiang section. However, the macroinvertebrate density was close to densities in the Shashi and Huangshi sections, and within the density range reported for the middle reaches of Yangtze River, indicating that low macroinvertebrate density is typical of the area.
龚 成,池仕运,夏 纬,汪红军,胡 俊,陈 威,胡菊香.2021.天鹅洲长江段底栖动物的群落结构与季节变化[J].水生态学杂志,42(1):66-74.
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