微生态制剂-生物膜对虾养殖系统水质净化效果研究
Water Purification by Probiotic Biofilms in Shrimp Culture Systems
投稿时间:2018-02-22  修订日期:2019-12-28
中文关键词:南美白对虾  微生态制剂  生物膜  水质调控  细菌群落结构
英文关键词:Penaeus vannamei  probiotics  biofilm  water purification  bacterial community structure
基金项目:山东省重点研发计划项目(2018GSF117022)
作者单位E-mail
刘洋 青岛理工大学环境与市政工程学院山东 青岛 266033 liuyang9354@163.com 
宋志文 青岛理工大学环境与市政工程学院山东 青岛 266033  
李凌志 青岛理工大学环境与市政工程学院山东 青岛 266033  
徐爱玲 青岛理工大学环境与市政工程学院山东 青岛 266033  
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中文摘要:
      为提高对虾养殖系统水质净化能力,改善对虾养殖水环境,利用3种微生态制剂(枯草芽孢杆菌、硝化细菌、光合细菌)和2种生物膜载体(陶粒、纤维毛球)建立4个南美白对虾(Penaeus vannamei)养殖系统,比较不同养殖系统硝化功能的建立过程及对氨氮和亚硝酸盐氮的净化能力,采用高通量测序方法分析细菌群落结构。结果表明,各系统硝化功能建立后,24 h氨氮去除率较初期分别提高12.47%、13.95%、17.25%和17.65%。以纤维毛球为载体,投加硝化细菌、枯草芽孢杆菌和光合细菌系统的氨氧化能力和亚硝酸盐氧化能力强于陶粒系统,24 h氨氮去除率分别高9.03%和9.06%。投放虾苗后,在30 d养殖周期内各系统氨氮和亚硝酸盐氮含量分别维持在0.20 mg/L和0.15 mg/L以下,硝酸盐氮含量呈缓慢上升趋势。细菌群落结构分析表明养殖系统生物膜中优势菌门均为变形菌门,占比超40%;优势菌纲为α-变形菌纲、β-变形菌纲、γ-变形菌纲,系统中存在Nitrosomonas、Nitrospira和Nitrococcus等多种参与水体净化以及Algisphaera、Gemmatimonas和Paucibacter等参与有机质分解与对虾益生作用的类群。本研究可为减少养殖水体废物排放及降低水生环境污染风险提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Intensive shrimp culture has developed rapidly and become one of the leading food production sectors in China. However, large scale expansion of intensive shrimp culture faces challenges, including the deterioration of aquaculture water quality that threatens the aquatic environment. Probiotics, an eco-friendly and cost-effective supplement, have been widely applied in intensive shrimp culture to regulate the microecological balance of the culture system, improve culture water quality, boost the immune system of shrimp and control pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In this study, four shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) culture systems were established using different combinations of three probiotics (Bacillus, nitrifying bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria) and two biofilm carriers (ceramsite, fiber hair ball). Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was added at different initial concentrations (3, 6, 9 mg/L) to intensify nitrification in the culture system before shrimp were released into the culture pond. Healthy shrimp 〔body length, (0.8±0.15 )cm; body weight, (0.009±0.001 )g〕 were selected for the test at a density of 1666 ind/m3. During the test, the probiotics and biofilm carriers for each treatment were added daily and water was not changed for 30 days. The water temperature, pH, DO, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO- 2-N) were determined daily and nitrate nitrogen (NO- 3-N) was determined at 72 h intervals. The nitrification process and purification capacity toward NH3-N and NO- 2-N in the four different culture systems and control (no probiotics or biofilm carriers) were compared and the structure of the bacterial community was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology. After nitrification was established, the NH3-N removal rates in the four treatment groups were higher than the control by 12.47%, 13.95%, 17.25% and 17.65%. Under the same probiotic treatment, NH3-N and NO- 2-N oxidation capacities in the fiber hair ball system were higher than with ceramsite. After 24 hr, the NH3-N removal rates in the fiber hair ball system were 9.03% and 9.06% higher than in the ceramsite system. During shrimp culturing, the concentrations of NH3-N and NO- 2-N in each system remained under 0.20 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L, respectively, while the concentration of NO- 3-N slowly increased. Analysis of the bacterial community shows that Proteobacteria was the dominant taxa in the biofilm, accounting for 40% of the total, with α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria as the dominant classes. In addition, Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Nitrococcus were identified in the bacterial community and were involved in water purification. Algisphaera, Gemmatimonas and Paucibacter were involved in the decomposition of organic matter and improved shrimp growth. This study provides a reference for reducing aquaculture waste discharge and the risks posed by aquatic pollution.
刘洋,宋志文,李凌志,徐爱玲.2020.微生态制剂-生物膜对虾养殖系统水质净化效果研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(1):92-99.
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