鲢幼鱼对不同气量气泡幕的趋避行为
Approach-Avoidance Behavior of Juvenile Silver Carp to a Bubble Curtain at Different Gas Flows
投稿时间:2017-01-10  修订日期:2018-01-25
中文关键词:气泡幕  鲢幼鱼  趋避行为
英文关键词:bubble curtains  juvenile silver carp  approach-avoidance behavior
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (51579136,51609125);中国电力建设股份有限公司科技项目 (DJ-ZDXM-2014-04);三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心开放基金(2015KF-03);江 西省交通运输厅科技项目(2015C0021)。
作者单位E-mail
徐是雄 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002浙江华东建设工程有限公司浙江 杭州 310014
 
393376745@qq.com 
林晨宇 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002浙江华东建设工程有限公司浙江 杭州 310014
 
529663732@qq.com 
罗佳 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002河海大学水利水电学院江苏 南京 210098
 
 
赵守江 三峡大学理学院湖北 宜昌 443002
 
jim092118@yahoo.com.cn 
刘雁 三峡大学理学院湖北 宜昌 443002
 
liuyan703@163.com 
刘国勇 三峡大学生物与制药学院湖北 宜昌 443002
 
278113027@qq.com 
祝银 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 河海大学水文水资源学院江苏 南京210098
 
 
石小涛 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心,湖北 宜昌 443002 sxtshanghai@163.com 
胡晓 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心,湖北 宜昌 443002  
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中文摘要:
      研究鲢幼鱼在静水且黑暗处理下对不同气量气泡幕的响应行为,并观察发现其中的逃避行为,探究其在应对不同气量气泡幕时的行为策略及响应关系,为过鱼设施诱驱鱼手段的利用提供依据。鲢幼鱼体重(14.62±1.84)g、体长(11.68±0.56)cm。试验装置为自制钢混结构水槽,水槽中间位置底部铺设PVC管,上侧顶端布置小孔。气量设置:对照组0,试验组10、20、30、40、 60、 80、100和120L/min。每次试验结束后更换试验鱼进行下一次试验。观察记录试验鱼在气泡幕前的折返情况、尝试距离和逃逸方式。结果表明:(1)对照组鲢幼鱼通过率显著高于试验组平均通过率,气泡幕阻隔效果明显;(2)随着气量增加,鱼的通过率变化呈先下降后上升的趋势;3.鲢幼鱼的尝试距离变化先下降后上升,鱼应对气泡幕时的通过率与尝试距离间呈正相关关系;4.气量上升过程中,鱼在靠近气泡幕时因受刺激增大而表现出更多的逃逸行为(鱼游近气泡幕,受刺激后逃离的行为)。其中当气量达到40L/min时,鲢幼鱼出现被动逃逸(在鱼“除头部以外的身体”有触气泡幕,鱼“头部”面向适应区时,试验鱼径直游走)。本试验分析了鲢幼鱼在气泡幕的尝试通过情况及行为变化,为无伤拦鱼方面的研究提供参考,在过鱼设施工程中诱驱鱼设施,适当调整气泡幕气量情况,为进口流场设计和改善提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Bubble curtains are a practical and inexpensive means of guiding fish movement. Studies have shown that the efficacy of bubble curtains is influenced by fish species, the shape of bubble curtain, arrangement pattern and environmental variables. In this study, silver carp were selected as the test fish and approach-avoidance behavior was observed toward bubble curtains with different gas flows. The behavioral strategies and responses of silver carp to bubble curtains of different densities was discussed and the results provide a means of attracting or repelling fish in the design of fish passage facilities. Juvenile silver carp of body weight (14.62±1.84) g and length (11.68±0.56) cm were acclimated for seven days before testing in aerated tap water at (20±2) oC, dissolved oxygen >7mg/L and ammonia nitrogen <0.01mg/L. The experiment was carried out in a steel-concrete basin (7m × 0.8m × 1.2m) constructed for the study. The bubble curtain was generated using a PVC pipe (50 cm length) with holes ( diameter: 1.5 mm) drilled (every 2.5 cm) along the top, centered at the bottom of the sink and connected to an air compressor. Eight gas flow (0,10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 120L/min) treatments were set and each treatment was repeated 10 times. The test was conducted under hydrostatic, dark conditions from 19:00-24:00. One silver carp was randomly selected for each trial and placed in the acclimation area, demarcated with a net, of the sink for 30 min. The test began by lifting the net and the time was recorded when the fish passed through the bubble curtain. The trial ended when the fish passed through the curtain, or after 60 minutes if the fish did not pass through the bubble curtain. Test fish were used only once and all trials were recorded with a video camera for analysis of test fish behavior in response to the bubble curtain. The behaviors noted included the time to pass, the longest distance of approach to the bubble curtain, avoidance and escape (passive or active). There were four primary findings. (1) The passing rate of silver carp through the bubble curtain in the control group (100%) was significantly higher than the average passing rate (53%) of the different gas flow treatments. The passing rate of silver carp initially decreased and then increased with increasing gas flow, and the minimum passing rate occurred in the gas flow treatments of 20, 30 L/min. (2) The longest attempt distance (in approaching the bubble curtain) in the control group (229.6cm) was also higher than the average attempt distance (152.4 cm) of the different gas flow treatments, with significant difference between the control group and the gas flow treatment of 30 L/min (P<0.05). (3) The attempt distance initially decreased and then increased with increasing gas flow, and the passing rate was positively correlated with the attempt distance. (4) With increasing gas flow, the juvenile silver carp showed more escape behavior, resulting from the stronger stimulus, when approaching the bubble curtain. When the gas flow reached 40L/min, the silver carp escaped passively. The results provide technical support for repelling fish without injury and a reference for attracting or repelling fish in the design of fish passage facilities.
徐是雄,林晨宇,罗佳,赵守江,刘雁,刘国勇,祝银,石小涛,胡晓.2018.鲢幼鱼对不同气量气泡幕的趋避行为[J].水生态学杂志,39(1):69-75.
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