杭州城市河道生态治理实践及成效
Practice and Achievements of Ecological Treatment of Hangzhou Rivers
投稿时间:2016-09-05  修订日期:2018-04-09
中文关键词:生态治理  城市河道  水质  沉水植物  生物多样性
英文关键词:ecological treatment  urban rivers  water quality  submerged macrophytes  aquatic biodiversity
基金项目:杭州市重大科技创新项目(20131813A04);住房和城乡建设部科学技术项目(2014-K7-014)
作者单位E-mail
邱佩璜 .杭州市市区河道监管中心浙江 杭州310008 qiupeihuang@sohu.com 
范华 杭州市市区河道监管中心浙江 杭州310008 40393706@qq.com 
徐玉裕 杭州市市区河道监管中心浙江 杭州310008 470623018@qq.com 
汪国英 杭州市市区河道监管中心浙江 杭州310008 350042174@qq.com 
熊雄 中国科学院水生生物研究所湖北 武汉 430072 xxiong@ihb.ac.cn 
虞功亮 中国科学院水生生物研究所湖北 武汉 430072 yugl@ihb.ac.cn 
谢志才 中国科学院水生生物研究所湖北 武汉 430072 yugl@ihb.ac.cn 
吴辰熙 中国科学院水生生物研究所 湖北 武汉 430072 chenxi.wu@ihb.ac.cn 
刘剑彤 中国科学院水生生物研究所 湖北 武汉 430072 jtliu@ihb.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      评估杭州市城市河道生态治理成效,为更好地指导城市河道生态修复工作提供借鉴。后横港、沿山河、新塘河和南大河位于杭州市中心城区,水质都处于劣V类,蓝藻水华和黑臭暴发频繁,从2014年开始,分别开展了一系列生态修复工程。测定氨氮、总磷、高锰酸盐指数、溶解氧指标判断水质改善情况,分析浮游植物、浮游动物、底栖动物判断水体生态修复程度。氨氮后横港下降超过80%,沿山河和南大河下降60%左右;总磷后横港下降接近70%,其他河道下降23%~55%;后横港、沿山河、新塘河高锰酸盐指数进一步降低,部分河道高锰酸盐指数能达到II类水水平;溶解氧浓度都明显上升,均能达到III类以上水平。南大河的浮游植物密度达到了水华暴发的水平;各条河道的原生动物和轮虫类密度都较高,但Shannon多样性指数普遍在1~2;枝角类和桡足类密度偏低;底栖动物Shannon指数均低于1,指示河道处于严重污染状态。杭州市城市河道生态治理工作的中心是:在沉水植物恢复及以沉水植物恢复为基础、包含浮游动物和底栖动物等在内全水域生物多样性恢复的生态系统恢复。
英文摘要:
      Hangzhou is a city with many rivers and lakes, more than 520 rivers and a water area of 26 km2 in the central urban area. However, rapid economic growth over the past decades has resulted in severe deterioration of water quality in the rivers of Hangzhou, due to discharge of domestic waste and industrial pollutants. In recent years, Hangzhou has taken steps to control river pollution and ecological treatment is one of the measures used. To assess the effectiveness of ecological treatment of urban rivers in Hangzhou and improve ecological treatment, we have described the implementation and evaluated the effect of ecological treatments. The investigation was based on four representative urban rivers included in ecological demonstration projects; the Houheng River, Yanshan River, Xintang River and Nanda River. The rivers are located in different districts of the central urban area and have different characteristics. Before the treatment, water quality in the four rivers was all below national surface water standard level V; cyanobacterial blooms occurred frequently and malodorous black water was commonly encountered. Beginning in 2014, a series of bioremediation measures were implemented, aiming to restore submerged plants and increase zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Water quality parameters (ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, CODMn and dissolved oxygen) in the four rivers were compared before and after the ecological treatment. Aquatic organisms including phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates, were monitored to assess the ecological status of the treated rivers. Ammonia nitrogen levels in the Houheng, Yanshan and Nanda Rivers decreased more than 80%, 60% and 60%, respectively. Total phosphorus in Houheng River decreased 70%, and in other rivers from 23% to 55%. The CODMn of the Houheng, Yanshan and Xintang Rivers decreased and some river sections achieved level II water quality. Dissolved oxygen increased and black and odorous water was less common. Water quality in the four rivers improved due to ecological treatment and water quality reached level V and even level IV after ecological treatments that included aeration, bio-films, microbial agents, restoration of aquatic macrophytes, and artificial floating islands. However, the aquatic communities of the four rivers did not improve as much as water quality. Phytoplankton densities remained high, meanwhile algal blooms continued and the Shannon diversity indices for zooplankton and macroinvertebrate remained low, especially for macroinvertebrate (<1), and pollution-tolerant species dominated the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate communities. To summarize, water quality in the urban rivers of Hangzhou improved markedly and improving biodiversity should be the focus of follow-up work to increase the long-term ecological stability and water quality.
邱佩璜,范华,徐玉裕,汪国英,熊雄,虞功亮,谢志才,吴辰熙,刘剑彤.2018.杭州城市河道生态治理实践及成效[J].水生态学杂志,39(2):34-40.
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