金沙江下游向家坝库区鱼类群落结构空间格局
Spatial structure of fish community in the Xiangjiaba Reservoir of the lower Jinsha River
投稿时间:2022-04-24  修订日期:2022-06-24
DOI:
中文关键词:优势种  特有鱼类  外来鱼类  大坝
英文关键词:dominant species  endemic fish species  exotic fish species  dam
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位E-mail
熊 飞 江汉大学生命科学学院 xf9603@163.com 
郭祺 江汉大学生命科学学院 535742401@qq.com 
张伟 江汉大学生命科学学院 xf9603@163.com 
刘红艳 江汉大学生命科学学院 lhy9603@126.com 
翟东东 江汉大学生命科学学院 690831468@qq.com 
田辉伍 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所 281923340@qq.com 
段辛斌* 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所 duan@yfi.ac.cn 
陈大庆 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所 chdq@yfi.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了解金沙江下游水电梯级开发对鱼类群落的影响,于2016-2018年采用复合刺网和地笼对向家坝库区库首邵女坪、库中绥江和库尾桧溪的鱼类群落进行了7次调查,探究了建坝后的鱼类种类组成、个体大小、生态类群及其空间分布特征。共采集到鱼类59种,隶属于6目16科49属,其中长江上游特有鱼类5种,外来鱼类12种。在邵女坪、绥江和桧溪江段分别采集到鱼类39、40和39种,Jaccard相似性指数分析表明,3个江段鱼类群落物种组成为中等相似。相对重要性指数(IRI)分析显示,邵女坪江段鱼类群落的优势种为中华倒刺鲃和?,绥江江段优势种为?、鲢、瓦氏黄颡鱼和鳙,桧溪江段优势种为瓦氏黄颡鱼、镜鲤、鲤、?、草鱼和鲫。NMDS分析显示,库首邵女坪和库尾桧溪江段鱼类群落差异相对较大,Bray-Curtis相异指数为0.59;库中绥江与库首邵女坪鱼类群落更为相似,Bray-Curtis相异指数为0.41;库中绥江和库尾桧溪的Bray-Curtis相异指数为0.46。广适性鱼类是向家坝库区各江段的优势类群,分别占鱼类种类、数量和重量的57.7%±5.9%、65.2%±20.7%和47.7%±16.1%;从库首至库尾江段其数量百分数分别为43.3%、67.8%和84.5%,呈现逐渐增加趋势。向家坝库区渔获群体体长范围为29~655mm,平均体长为128±65mm,体重范围为0.1~5408g,平均体重为70±218g,主要种类(鲤和镜鲤除外)在不同江段间个体大小差异显著(P<0.05)。与蓄水前(2011年)相比,金沙江下游鱼类群落发生了显著变化,流水性的特有鱼类减少,外来鱼类增多。研究结果为梯级水电开发生态环境影响评价及鱼类保护提供了依据,为长江“十年禁渔”效果评估提供了本底资料。
英文摘要:
      To understand the impacts on fish community from Cascaded hydropower project construction in the lower Jinsha River, seven surveys were conducted for species composition, body size, dominant species, ecological groups, and its spatial distribution by multiply gill nets and cages in Shaonvping, Suijiang and Huixi sections, located in the lower, middle and upper streams of of the Xiangjiaba Reservoir, respectively, in 2016-2018. Altogether 59 species of fish belonging to 49 genus, 16 families and 6 orders were collected, among which 5 species were endemic to the upper Yangtze River and 12 species were exotic. A total of 39, 40 and 30 species of fish were sampled in Shaonvping, Suijiang and Huixi sections, respectively. Analysis of the Jaccard index of similarity showed that the similarity of fish species composition among the three sections were on a medium level. Analysis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) indicated that the dominant species were Spinibar bussinensis and Hemiculter leucisclus in Shaonvping section, H. Leucisclus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Pseudobagrus vachelli and Aristichthys nobilis in Suijiang section, and P. Vachelli, Cyprinus carpiovar.specularis, C. carpio, H. leucisclus, Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Carassius auratus in Huixi section, respectively. Nonmetric nultidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed that the fish community structure was more dissimilar between Shaonvping and Huixi sections with the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index of 0.59, while the fish community were similar between Suijiang and Shaonvping sections with the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index of 0.41. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index between Suijiang and Huixi sections was 0.46. The eurytopic species dominated the reservoir, accounting for 57.7%±5.9% in species, 65.2%±20.7% in abundance and 47.7%±16.1 in weight of the total catch, respectively. The percentages in abundance of the eurytopic species were 43.3% in Shaonvping, 67.8% in Suijiang and 84.5% in Huixi, respectively, having a increasing tendency from the lower to upper streams in the reservoir. The individual length of the catch ranged 29~655mm with an average of 128±65mm, and the weight ranged 0.1~5408g with an average of 70±218g. The body size of the main species showed a significant difference among the three sections of the reservoir except C. carpiovar. specularis and C. carpio (P<0.05). Compared with before-impounding (2011), the fish community structure in the lower Jinsha River have changed dramatically with a decreasing of endemic species and an increasing of exotic species. The results are expected to provide theoretic references for ecological effect assessment of hydropower project construction and fish conservation, and also accumulate background data for ecological effect assessment of Ten-Year fishing Ban.
熊 飞,郭祺,张伟,刘红艳,翟东东,田辉伍,段辛斌,陈大庆.2024.金沙江下游向家坝库区鱼类群落结构空间格局[J].水生态学杂志,45(4):82-91.
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