乌东德水电站日调峰对下游裂腹鱼类栖息地的影响
Effects of Daily Peak-shaving on Fish Habitat Downstream of Wudongde Hydropower Station
投稿时间:2023-11-28  修订日期:2024-01-17
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202311280353
中文关键词:裂腹鱼类  日调峰  生态调度  生态流量  乌东德电站
英文关键词:Schizothoracine fishes  daily peak-shaving  ecological operation  ecological flow  Wudongde hydropower plant
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFC3200304);中国三峡建工(集团)有限公司技术服务项目(合同号:JG-EP-0421003)
作者单位
曹 俊 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079长江水利委员会水旱灾害防御创新团队湖北 武汉 430010 
陈小娟 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
卢晶莹 中国三峡建工(集团)有限公司四川 成都 610000 
邓鑫欣 中国三峡建工(集团)有限公司四川 成都 610000 
陶江平 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
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中文摘要:
      日调峰是乌东德水电站日常运行的主要出力约束和调度目标。为了探讨电站调度引起的出库流量大幅涨落对下游生态环境的不利影响,采用河道内流量增量法,通过构建二维水动力模型,研究了乌东德水电站日调峰引起的下游河段水文水动力条件波动对裂腹鱼类繁殖期栖息地适宜性的影响,并分析了2023年电站基荷发电生态调度试验效果。结果表明,乌东德电站下泄流量低于1 160 m3/s,坝下江段裂腹鱼类潜在产卵场面积相对较大;流量高于2 000 m3/s,裂腹鱼类潜在的产卵场面积显著减少。电站日调峰结束时,出库流量降幅越大,裂腹鱼类潜在产卵场脱水面积及鱼卵脱水风险越大。乌东德电站基荷发电生态调度期间,坝下江段裂腹鱼类潜在产卵场的加权面积有所减少,但潜在产卵场和鱼卵早期的脱水风险显著降低。为提高繁殖期裂腹鱼类生境适宜性和持续性,有必要进一步减少电站日调峰频率,降低出库流量至适宜区间。
英文摘要:
      Daily peaking is the main output constraint and scheduling goal for daily operation of the Wudongde hydropower plant, but the sharp rise and fall of reservoir outflow caused by scheduling has also adversely impacted the downstream aquatic habitat. In this study, Schizothoracinae were selected for a case study, and we analyzed the effects of fluctuating hydrological and hydrodynamic conditions caused by daily peaking at Wudongde hydropower plant on the physical habitats of Schizothoracine species during spawning season. Additionally, we analyzed the effectiveness of ecological operation based on baseload-power-generation at Wudongde hydropower plant in 2023. The aim of the study was to provide a reference for optimizing ecological regulation and flow, and support efforts to conserve and restore fish habitat. The river reach studied is from Wudongde Dam to the Pudu River estuary, stretching 37 km. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was constructed using the instream flow incremental method, and the hydrological and hydrodynamic conditions of the Wudongde hydropower plant were simulated under eight flow scenarios. Results show that the potential spawning areas (PSAs) of Schizothoracinae were relatively large when the discharge from Wudongde hydropower plant was less than 1 160 m3/s, and the size of the PSAs decreased significantly when the discharge exceeded 2 000 m3/s. When the power plant used daily peak-shaving, the larger the decrease of discharge, the larger the dewatered PSAs, and the higher the egg-dewatering risk. During ecological operation in 2023, based on baseload-power-generation of Wudongde hydropower plant, the time-weighted size of PSAs for Schizothoracine species decreased slightly in reaches below the dam, but the dewatering risk of the PSAs and eggs was significantly reduced. To improve habitat suitability and duration for Schizothoracinae during spawning season, we recommend further reduction in the frequency of peak-shaving and decreased outflow at Wudongde hydropower plant.
曹 俊,陈小娟,卢晶莹,邓鑫欣,陶江平.2024.乌东德水电站日调峰对下游裂腹鱼类栖息地的影响[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):87-95.
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