面向产漂流性卵鱼类的三峡水库生态调度效果评价
Effects of Ecological Operation of Three Gorges Reservoir on Fish Species with Drifting Eggs
投稿时间:2023-11-14  修订日期:2023-12-14
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202311140329
中文关键词:产漂流性卵鱼类  四大家鱼  生态调度  效果评价  三峡水库
英文关键词:fish species with drifting eggs  four major Chinese carps  ecological operation  effect evaluation  Three Gorges Reservoir
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFC3200304);国家自然科学基金联合(U2240214)
作者单位
张迪 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
徐薇 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079 
吴凡 国家发展和改革委员会一带一路建设促进中心北京 100038 
林俊强 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
侯轶群 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所湖北 武汉 430079 
朱博然 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
彭期冬 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
靳甜甜 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
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中文摘要:
      构建生态调度效果评估指标体系,评估三峡水库历年生态调度的效果并提出生态调度方案的优化建议,为三峡水库生态调度提供参考。从生态环境效益和社会经济效益2个维度出发,构建的面向产漂流性卵鱼类繁殖的水库生态调度效果评价体系包含目标层、准则层和6个一级指标、10个二级指标,提出了各指标的计算方法和赋分标准,并采用层次分析法根据指标相对重要度,计算了各指标的权重系数。2012-2022年三峡水库生态调度效果各年度存在明显差异,涨水持续时间、初始流量、流量日上涨率和洪峰流量、水温等水文水环境指标满足鱼类最适繁殖需求的生态调度,鱼类繁殖响应良好;开展2次生态调度年份的效果好于开展1次调度的年份。三峡水库生态调度尽可能控制在水温20℃以上起调,水库出流过程尽可能接近鱼类适宜的水文需求阈值区间,同时在水库运行条件合适的前提下,年内尽可能开展2次生态调度实践,泄放较大脉冲的洪峰过程,促进鱼类繁殖。
英文摘要:
      To mitigate adverse ecological effects, Three Gorges Reservoir has been run according to an ecological operation protocol for 12 years (2011-2022), targeting natural reproduction of fish species with drifting eggs in the river below the dam. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ecological operation of Three Gorges Reservoir over the years based on a constructed evaluation index system. Based on the results we make recommendations for optimizing the ecological operation scheme, aiming to provide a reference for the ecological operation of Three Gorges Reservoir. Based on the effect of discharge scheduling on spawning success of fish species with drifting eggs, the evaluation system developed for this study contains a target layer and criterion layer, consisting of 6 primary indices and 10 secondary indices. The weight coefficient of each index was calculated according to the relative importance of the index as determined by the analytic hierarchy process. From 2012 to 2022, the effect of ecological operation of Three Gorges Reservoir varied significantly from year to year. Fish reproduction was good when ecological operation resulted in optimal hydrological and environmental conditions, such as the duration of flow increase, initial flow, daily rate of increase in flow, peak flow, and water temperature. Ecological operation twice a year was more beneficial than once a year. We recommend that ecological operation of discharge from Three Gorges Reservoir should be controlled to maintain a water temperature above 20℃, and that the discharge process should provide, as close as possible, the hydrological conditions required for target fish species to reproduce. Further, ecological operation should be carried out twice a year, and the flood peak with large pulses should be released according to a schedule that promotes fish reproduction.
张迪,徐薇,吴凡,林俊强,侯轶群,朱博然,彭期冬,靳甜甜.2024.面向产漂流性卵鱼类的三峡水库生态调度效果评价[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):58-66.
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