长江上游江津段产漂流性卵鱼类早期资源现状及繁殖需求研究
Early Stage Resource Status of Fish Species Spawning Drifting Eggs in the Jiangjin Section of the Upper Yangtze River and Their Hydrologic Requirements
投稿时间:2023-11-08  修订日期:2023-11-23
DOI:
中文关键词:产漂流性卵鱼类  产卵场  水文条件  长江上游
英文关键词:fish with drifting eggs  spawning grounds  early stage fish resources  hydrology  upper Yangtze River
基金项目:中国长江三峡集团有限公司“金沙江下游流域水生生态监测(2019-2024年)”项目(JG/19017B)
作者单位
朱 俊 中国长江三峡集团有限公司湖北 武汉 430010 
曹 俊 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉430079 
周 涛 中国长江三峡集团有限公司湖北 武汉 430010 
杨 志 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉430079 
朱正强 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉430079 
朱其广 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉430079
 
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中文摘要:
      研究长江上游江津段产漂流性卵鱼类早期资源现状和繁殖水文需求,可为长江上游鱼类资源保护和管理提供数据基础。2019―2022年鱼类繁殖季节,在长江上游保护区江津断面开展鱼类早期资源调查,以了解该区域鱼类早期资源种类组成、鱼卵密度的时间动态以及与水文、水环境因子的关系。结果表明,所采集到的67种鱼类卵苗中典型产漂流性种类26种;从各种类繁殖规模比例来看,吻鮈、圆筒吻鮈、铜鱼、草鱼等占比较高;长鳍吻鮈繁殖高峰集中在4月,圆筒吻鮈和铜鱼的繁殖高峰集中在5月中下旬至7月上旬,四大家鱼的繁殖高峰集中在6月中旬―7月上旬,吻鮈的繁殖时间较长,高峰期集中在4月下旬至6月中下旬;产漂流性卵鱼类的主要产卵场分布在泸州弥陀镇、重庆朱杨溪―石门和金刚沱―油溪镇江段;相关分析结果表明,日均鱼卵密度与透明度呈显著负相关,与流量呈显著正相关;分类回归树结果表明,涨水过程中的水位涨幅、初始流量和透明度最小值是影响保护区产漂流性卵鱼类类群繁殖规模大小的重要因素,对于不同种类而言,所需的积温、流量条件不尽相同。长江上游保护区江段是多种产漂流性卵鱼类的产卵场,金沙江下游梯级陆续运行后,原产卵场位置和规模均发生了一定的变化,建议实施生态调度来减缓其影响时,不仅需要考虑水文、积温条件对鱼类性腺的影响,还需要考虑水文过程与产卵场形成之间的联系。
英文摘要:
      In this study, we investigated the status of fish species that spawn drifting eggs in the Jiangjin section of the upper Yangtze River, focusing on species composition, temporal dynamics of egg density, spawning grounds and their relationship with hydrologic and environmental factors. Our aim was to accumulate basic data to support the fishery resource conservation and management in the upper Yangtze River and study the ecological effects of hydraulic projects on the natural spawning of species that produce drifting eggs. The study was based on early stage fish monitoring conducted in the Jiangjin section during the spawning periods from 2019 to 2022. Hydrologic and environmental parameters were measured simultaneously, including water velocity, discharge flow, water level, water temperature and transparency. A total of 67 fish species from 13 families and 7 orders were collected during the investigation, identified using morphological and molecular techniques. 26 of the species collected produce drifting eggs and 11 were endemic to the upper Yangtze River. Recruitment of drifting eggs in the Jiangjin section were estimated at 9.32×108 in 2019, 5.82×108 in 2020, 12.24×108 in 2021 and 14.99×108 in 2022. Egg production for Rhinogobio typus, Rhinogobio cylindricus, Coreius heterodon and Ctenopharyngodon idellus was much higher than for other species. The spawning of Rhinogobio ventralis peaked in April, while spawning of Rhinogobio cylindricus and Coreius heterodon occurred from mid-May to early July. The four major Chinese carps also spawned from mid-June to early July and, for Rhinogobio typus, it was from late April to late June. Five spawning grounds for fish species producing pelagic eggs were located 170 km above the Jiangjin transect, located near Mituo, Zhuyangxi, Shimen, Jingangtuo and Youxi. There was a significant positive correlation between average daily density of eggs and discharge flow and significant negative correlation with transparency. A classification regression tree was constructed and indicated that water level, initial discharge flow and minimum transparency during discharge flooding were the critical factors affecting spawning quantity. The spawning requirements for accumulated temperature and flow varied by species. In conclusion, there were spawning grounds for many species that produce drifting eggs in the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and the location and productivity of the original spawning grounds have changed due to construction and operation of the cascaded reservoirs. We recommend ecological reservoir operation to meet the hydrological requirements for fish spawning and early life stages of pelagic species, considering the effect of hydrology and accumulated temperature on fish gonad development and the relationship between hydrological conditions and spawning ground formation.
朱 俊,曹 俊,周 涛,杨 志,朱正强,朱其广.2024.长江上游江津段产漂流性卵鱼类早期资源现状及繁殖需求研究[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):75-86.
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