怒江西藏段鱼类群落结构及多样性
Fish community structure and diversity in Xizang section of Nujiang River
投稿时间:2022-07-12  修订日期:2024-06-26
DOI:
中文关键词:怒江  西藏段  鱼类资源  多样性指数  ABC曲线
英文关键词:Nu river  Tibet  Fish resources  Diversity index  abundance biomass comparison curse
基金项目:农业农村部财政专项“西藏重点水域渔业资源与环境调查”;中国水产科学研究院创新团队项目(2020TD09)
作者单位E-mail
左硕 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所 1984998624@qq.com 
刘明典* 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所 liumd@yfi.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究怒江西藏段鱼类群落结构及多样性特征,于2017-2020年在怒江西藏段干流及主要支流设置9个调查站点进行了8次鱼类资源调查。调查共采集到鱼类23种,隶属于2目6科9属,其中怒江特有种有6种,外来鱼类5种。鱼类种类数分布总体上呈现随着海拔上升而逐渐减少的分布趋势。优势种为怒江裂腹鱼(Schizothorax nukiangensiss)、裸腹叶须鱼(Ptychobarbus kaznakovi)和热裸裂尻鱼(Schizopygopsis thermalis),3种鱼类共占调查鱼类总生物量的96.28%,占生物总数的91.25%。群落多样性分析结果显示Shannon指数、Simpson指数、Margalef指数、Pielou指数范围分别为0.369~0.908、0.222~0.496、0.317~0.754和0.405~0.692,怒江西藏段鱼类群落多样性整体上处于较低水平。生态类型上分为底栖缓流型、底栖间隙型、急流吸附型及静水中层型4类,摄食类型基本上都为杂食性。下游察瓦龙乡与那曲大坝上游的鱼类物种组成相似性指数(11.76%)最低,支流左贡玉曲河与比如大坝下游的鱼类物种组成相似性指数(70.00%)最高。流域总体上处于中度干扰状态,上游大坝之间的河段及支流玉曲河处于较为严重的干扰状态。为了保护怒江西藏段鱼类多样性,降低区域内干扰,建议在玉曲河支流设立保护区,同时加强流域渔政管理,规范放生行为,做好流域开发的生态保护修复与预案研究。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the fish community structure and diversity characteristics in the Xizang section of the Nujiang River, nine survey stations were set up in the main stream and main tributaries of the Xizang section of the Nujiang River from 2017 to 2020 and eight fish resource surveys were conducted. A total of 23 fish species were collected, belonging to 9 genera, 6 families and 2 orders, among which 6 species were endemic to Nujiang River and 5 species were exotic. In general, the distribution of fish species decreased with the increase of altitude. The dominant species were Schizothorax lantsangensiss, Ptychobarbus kaznakovi and Schizopygopsis thermalis. The three species accounted for 96.28% of the total biomass and 91.25% of the total biomass. The Shannon index, Simpson index, Margalef index and Pielou index ranged from 0.369-0.908, 0.222-0.496, 0.317-0.754 and 0.405-0.692, respectively. The diversity of fish community in Xizang section of Nujiang River was at a low level. The ecological types are divided into four types: benthic slow-flow type, benthic interstitial type, rapid-adsorbed type and hydrostatic middle type. The feeding types are basically omnivorous. The similarity index of fish species composition between the lower reaches of Chawalong Township and the upper reaches of Naqu Dam was the lowest (11.76%), and the highest (70.00%) was found between the tributary Zuokong Yuqu River and the lower reaches of Ru Dam. On the whole, the river reaches between DAMS and the tributary Yuqu River are in the state of moderate disturbance. In order to protect the diversity of fish in the Tibetan section of the Nujiang River and reduce the disturbance in the region, it is suggested to establish a protected area in the tributaries of the Yuqu River, strengthen the fishery administration in the watershed, standardize the release behavior, and do a good job in the ecological protection and restoration of the watershed.
左硕,刘明典.2024.怒江西藏段鱼类群落结构及多样性[J].水生态学杂志,45(4):73-81.
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