湄公河典型区域旱雨季土地利用及土壤侵蚀差异研究
Differences in Land Use and Soil Erosion During Dry and Rainy Seasons in the Savannakhet-Kratie Area of Mekong River
投稿时间:2021-09-03  修订日期:2024-03-19
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202109030310
中文关键词:土地利用  土壤侵蚀  旱雨季  湄公河
英文关键词:land use  soil erosion  dry season and rainy season  Mekong River
基金项目:中国-东盟国家防洪抗旱应急管理合作项目
作者单位
赵 娜 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
张道熙 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
韩东枫 山东省气象防灾减灾重点实验室山东 济南 250031山东省气候中心山东 济南 250031 
陈小娟 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
邱 娟 中国科学院 精密测量科学与技术创新研究院湖北 武汉 430071 
金 瑶 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
龚昱田 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
摘要点击次数: 993
全文下载次数: 135
中文摘要:
      以湄公河干流老挝沙湾拿吉至柬埔寨桔井段重要支流南蒙河、色丹河、色贡河、色桑河、斯雷博河及其左右岸缓冲区50 km范围为研究区域,基于Landsat8遥感和河网数据,对比植被覆盖度以及空间分布特征,分析区域内旱季(1-2月)、雨季(6-9月)土地利用及土壤侵蚀变化。结果表明,季节性降雨导致土地利用变化明显,旱、雨季土地利用变化主要表现为河道沿岸水体动态变化;旱季水体面积较雨季净减少43 259 hm2,占总变化面积的93.8%;雨季至旱季耕地转化占总变化面积38.00% (17 514.44 hm2),其次为灌木地(22.98%,10 590.54 hm2)和裸地(21.77%,10 033.32 hm2)。土地利用类型转化导致土壤侵蚀变化,旱、雨季土壤极强烈侵蚀和剧烈侵蚀区域变化不大;旱季以轻度侵蚀、中度侵蚀增加为主,净增加面积分别为4 107 hm2和5 864 hm2,分别占总变化面积的36.9%和52.7%;其中,97%的增加面积由无侵蚀类型发展而来,体现在旱季沿岸水体面积的大幅降低。建议在水土保持过程中,改传统稻田种植为耕作、轮作和培肥一体化的水保措施,增强基础设施建设,加强河岸带生态护坡建设与管理,降低自然洪水或人为工程对自然林地和植被的破坏。
英文摘要:
      With the development of navigation, irrigation, hydropower, and fisheries in the Mekong River basin, the aquatic ecosystem of the river basin faces many challenges. Soil erosion has been the primary environmental problem in the Mekong River basin. In this study, we compared the vegetation cover and spatial distribution in a key area of the Mekong River basin and analyzed land use and soil erosion changes in the dry season (January-February) and rainy season (June-September), based on Landsat 8 remote sensing images and river network data. The study area included the Savannakhet-Kratie main stem and important tributaries (Nam Mun River, Se Done River, Se Kong River, Se San River, Sre Pok River) of the Mekong River, including the buffer zone within 50 km of the left/right banks of these rivers. Results show that: (1) seasonal precipitation led to obvious land use changes. The land use changes during the dry and rainy seasons were mainly manifested in the dynamic changes of riverside water bodies. The water area in the dry season decreased by 43 259 hm2, accounting for 93.8% of the total change. Conversion to crop land accounted for 38.00% of the total change (17 514.44 hm2), followed by shrub land (22.98%, 10 590.54 hm2) and bare land (21.77%, 10 033.32 hm2). (2) Changes in land use type led to soil erosion. No significant changes in the areas with extremely intensified soil erosion and violent soil erosion occurred during dry and rainy seasons. Light and moderate soil erosion primarily increased in the dry season, with net increases in area of 4 107 hm2 and 5 864 hm2, accounting respectively for 36.9% and 52.7% of the total change. Further, 97% of the increase in area developed from the no erosion land type, as reflected by the drastic reduction in riverside water area during the dry season. We recommend that traditional rice planting be converted to integrated tillage methods that conserve soil and water, including rotation and fertilization. We also recommend strengthening the infrastructure, improving ecological slope protection, and reducing the damage to natural woodland and vegetation caused by flooding and man-made projects.
赵 娜,张道熙,韩东枫,陈小娟,邱 娟,金 瑶,龚昱田.2024.湄公河典型区域旱雨季土地利用及土壤侵蚀差异研究[J].水生态学杂志,45(2):47-53.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器   HTML
Copyright © 2008 《水生态学杂志》编辑部 地址:湖北省武汉市雄楚大街578号 
邮编:430079 电话:027-82926630 E-mail: sstx@mail.ihe.ac.cn  京ICP备09084417号