耦合水文情势及鱼类繁殖的江垭水库生态调度需求研究
Ecological Operation of Jiangya Reservoir Coupled with River Hydrology and Fish Reproduction
投稿时间:2023-11-03  修订日期:2024-01-19
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202311030309
中文关键词:鱼类繁殖  环境DNA  水文情势  生态调度  江垭水库
英文关键词:fish reproduction  environmental DNA  hydrologic regime  ecological operation  Jiangya reservoir
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFC3200304);长江水科学研究联合基金(U2040205,U2340218)
作者单位
徐 薇 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079长江水利委员会水旱灾害防御创新团队湖北 武汉 430010 
魏 秘 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
曹 俊 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079长江水利委员会水旱灾害防御创新团队湖北 武汉 430010 
蔡 露 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
高少波 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
朱 迪 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430079 
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中文摘要:
      为了修复河流水文情势、维持河流生态系统健康,通过环境DNA采样、IHA水文指标变动分析和文献资料总结等方法,开展了江垭水库坝下水文情势及鱼类繁殖需求关系研究,提出了水库生态调度需求与建议。结果显示,2021年9月在溇水干支流综合调查获得鱼类55种,与20世纪90年代相比,流水性种类在干流江段显著减少了51.35%;按照生态调度优先等级评估原则,确定江垭水库生态调度的主要目标物种为产漂流性卵的银鲴(Xenocypris argentea)、银鮈(Squalidus argentatus)、贝氏?(Hemiculter bleekeri)和产粘沉性卵的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus);江垭建坝前后下游水文情势变化较大,发生高度改变且对鱼类洄游产卵及鱼卵发育有重要作用的水文指标包括年最大1日、3日平均流量指标、年出现高流量脉冲事件的次数和持续时间以及连续日流量上涨率。研究表明,以促进坝下不同产卵类型的鱼类繁殖为目标,生态调度需要一定的高流量脉冲次数和历时,还需要控制下游水位的日降幅,通过泄放合理的生态流量来维持下游鱼类的生物多样性。
英文摘要:
      The ecological operation of large reservoirs is an important means of restoring the hydrological regimes of rivers and the health of river ecosystems. Jiangya Reservoir, located in Cili County, Zhangjiajie, on the lower Loushui River, is a large reservoir and is important for flood control in the Lishui River basin. However, fish populations in Loushui River have been declining, and restoration and the need for conservation of the resource is urgent. In September 2021, a comprehensive fishery resource investigation was carried out in the mainstem and tributaries of the middle and lower Loushui River, including environmental DNA sampling, fish collection and fisherman surveys. The fishery composition and distribution, and variations in the hydrological regime below Jiangya Dam, before and after reservoir construction, were analyzed. The analysis was based on the investigation of fishery resources and aquatic habitat, combined with long term hydrological data collected at Changtanhe Hydrologic Station (1960-2020), and target fish species were selected for the ecological operation. We then explored the relationship between the hydrology below Jiangya Dam and fish reproduction by analyzing variations in the Index of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) and a review of the literature. Finally, requirements and recommendations for the ecological operation of Jiangya Reservoir were put forward. A total of 55 fish species were recorded in the mainstream and tributaries of Loushui River in September 2021. The number of rheophilic fish species in the mainstream decreased significantly (51.35%) compared to the 1990s. According to the priority evaluation of target fish species for the ecological operation, the primary target species are Xenocypris argentea, Squalidus argentatus, Hemiculter bleekeri that lay drifting eggs, and Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus that lay sticky eggs. Before and after the construction of Jiangya Dam the hydrological regimes in the lower reaches have changed greatly. The hydrological indicators that most changed and play important roles for fish migration, spawning and fish egg development include the annual maximum 1-day and 3-day average flow, number and duration of high-flow pulse events in a year, and continuous daily flow increase rate. To promote fish spawning below the dam that includes different types of eggs, the ecological operation of Jiangya reservoir needs to maintain a sufficient number and duration of high flow pulses, and control the daily decline of downstream water level. These hydrologic characteristics are important for maintaining a diversity of downstream aquatic organisms and are achievable by ecological operation.
徐 薇,魏 秘,曹 俊,蔡 露,高少波,朱 迪.2024.耦合水文情势及鱼类繁殖的江垭水库生态调度需求研究[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):103-111.
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