竖缝式鱼道桩柱结构过鱼效果探究
Optimizing Vertical Slot Fishway Hydraulics with a Pool Cylinder
投稿时间:2022-07-14  修订日期:2024-03-29
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202207140270
中文关键词:竖缝式鱼道  桩柱结构  数值模拟  水力学特性
英文关键词:vertical slot fishway  pool cylindrical structures  numerical modeling  hydraulic flow pattern
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51679261);流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点试验室自主研究课题(SKL2020TS04)
作者单位
柳松涛 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002 
李广宁 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
石 凯 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038天津大学建筑工程学院天津 300072 
孙双科 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 
石小涛 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002 
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中文摘要:
      竖缝式鱼道作为一种协助鱼类洄游上溯从而提升河流连通性的设施得到广泛的应用,但多数鱼道的实际过鱼效能并不理想,鱼道的池室结构尚具有一定的提升空间。通过数值模拟和对照性过鱼试验,比较分析了4种池室内部增加桩柱和未增加的水流结构。结果表明,在鱼道主流中间增设桩柱结构,可以有效减小回流区面积,减幅达49%,并可减小竖缝处的紊动能,最大减少18%;增加鱼类上溯路线分布,提高了池室空间利用率。两种结构的上溯轨迹分析发现,齐口裂腹鱼多选择回流区外侧上溯,避免进入回流区中心,多选择较高的水力应变与紊动能区域作为上溯方向,且上溯路线中偏好较低水力因子区域,上溯偏好流速为0.01~0.09 m/s,紊动能为0.001~0.008 m2/s2,水力应变为0.2~3.0/s。体型Ⅱ鱼道通过在主流位置增加桩柱结构,形成了多股水流,有效减小回流区的占比,提高了鱼道池室空间利用率,为鱼类的上溯路径提供了更多选择。
英文摘要:
      The vertical slot fishway is widely used to assist upstream fish migration and increase river connectivity. However, the fish passage efficiency of most fishways is not satisfactory and the pool structure in particular has potential for improvement. In this study, we used numerical simulations to analyze the pool flow structure after cylinders were placed in various configurations in the pool between the slots of a vertical slot fishway. Fish swimming behavior and preferences were then observed as the hydraulic parameters were varied in controlled fish passage experiments. Our aim was to provide theoretical evidence for improving fish passage design and efficiency. Four cylinder configurations (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) were compared to determine which arrangement gave the best flow regime and fish passing efficiency. Then, Schizothorax prenanti was selected for experiments on fish passing through pools modified with cylinders and the pools of a standard vertical slot structure and upstream swimming behavior was observed. Results show that a single cylinder at mid-pool of the mainstream (configuration Ⅱ) reduced the reflux zone by 49% and the turbulent kinetic energy at the vertical slot by 18%, which increased upstream swimming routes and available pool space. Analysis of upstream swimming trajectories in the experiments shows that S. prenanti prefer swimming outside the recirculation zone, and used the higher hydraulic strain in the turbulence energy area to adjust swimming direction. The preferred upstream swimming trajectory of S. prenanti was significantly related to the velocity, turbulence energy, and hydraulic strain (P≤0.01), with a preferred flow velocity range of 0.01-0.09 m/s, turbulent kinetic energy range of 0.001-0.008 m2/s2, and hydraulic strain range of 0.2-3.0/s. In conclusion, adding a cylinder mid-pool mainstream of the fishway (configuration Ⅱ) produces multiple streams of water, reduces recirculation zone size, increases useable pool space, and provides more upstream swimming trajectories.
柳松涛,李广宁,石 凯,孙双科,石小涛.2024.竖缝式鱼道桩柱结构过鱼效果探究[J].水生态学杂志,45(2):148-158.
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