生态调度控制汉江中游入侵沉水植物过度生长效果研究
Ecological Control of Invasive Submerged Plants in the Middle Hanjiang River
投稿时间:2022-05-27  修订日期:2024-05-22
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202205270199
中文关键词:沉水植物  生长控制  生态调度  伊乐藻  汉江中游
英文关键词:submerged macrophyte  growth control  ecological regulation  Elodea nuttallii  the middle reach of the Hanjiang River
基金项目:湖北省面上基金(2022CFB374);国家自然科学基金(U2040210)
作者单位
李 建 长江水资源保护科学研究所, 湖北 武汉 430051长江水利委员会湖库水源地面源污染生态调控重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430051 
赵肥西 长江水资源保护科学研究所, 湖北 武汉 430051长江水利委员会湖库水源地面源污染生态调控重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430051 
辛小康 长江水资源保护科学研究所, 湖北 武汉 430051长江水利委员会湖库水源地面源污染生态调控重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430051 
操 瑜 中国科学院武汉植物园,水生植物生物学实验室, 湖北 武汉 430074 
熊 斌 湖北汉江王甫洲水力发电有限责任公司, 湖北 襄阳 441800 
尹 炜 长江水资源保护科学研究所, 湖北 武汉 430051长江水利委员会湖库水源地面源污染生态调控重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430051 
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中文摘要:
      针对汉江中游江段入侵沉水植物伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)过度生长的问题,以2019年调查监测为基础,采用生物量、分布面积、流速、流量等指标,于2020―2021年在汉江丹江口水库联合王甫洲水利枢纽开展了控制伊乐藻过度生长的生态调度试验并评估其生态效果。结果表明:(1)丹江口?王甫洲区间适宜入侵沉水植物伊乐藻生长的水域面积达16.8 km2,主要分布在坝前两岸浅水区、泄水闸上游洲滩、水岸新城、中洲岛、木排港、羊皮滩等区域;(2)生态调度的控制效果显著,伊乐藻生物量和分布面积呈逐年减少趋势,其年度峰值生物量变化与春季萌发期1?3月流量极值比(r=-0.997)和生长旺盛期4?8月平均流量指标 (r=-0.963) 呈负相关关系,相关系数均大于0.9,与全年平均流量(r=-0.748)和4?8月平均水温(r=0.732)的相关系数大于0.7,流量(流速)和水温是影响伊乐藻生物量的关键因子;(3)根据王甫洲坝前漂浮伊乐藻日打捞量与入库流量统计,可以对伊乐藻成熟团聚体产生明显冲刷影响的王甫洲入库流量(即丹江口水库下泄流量)条件为不小于1 500 m3/s;丹江口水库峰值流量为3 500 m3/s的单次汛期调度过程,可减少研究区间内约40%的伊乐藻生物量。
英文摘要:
      Overgrowth of the invasive submerged plant, Elodea nuttallii, in the middle reaches of Hanjiang River (from Danjiangkou to Wangfuzhou) has adversely effected native aquatic plants and biodiversity. Based on the observed relationship between extreme changes in spring flow and E. nuttallii overgrowth, experiments on ecological scheduling of flow were conducted in Danjiangkou Reservoir and Wangfuzhou Reservoir to control E. nuttallii overgrowth for two consecutive years, 2020 and 2021. We evaluated the effect of ecological flow regulation based on continuous monitoring of water velocity and flow, and E. nuttallii biomass and distribution area. Results show that: (1) In the section from Danjiangkou to Wangfuzhou, there was 16.8 km2 of water area suitable for E. nuttallii growth, distributed primarily in the shallow waters on both sides above the dam, the upper beach of the sluice gates, Shuianxincheng Island and Zhongzhou Island, Mupaigang and Yangpitan. (2) The biomass of E. nuttallii peaked in July and August, at 4.80×104 t, 1.30×104 t and 0.58×104 t, respectively, in 2019, 2020, and 2021 and the respective distribution areas of E. nuttallii were 11.60 km2, 2.02 km2 and 0.87 km2. Ecological flow regulation decreased E. nuttallii overgrowth significantly with biomass and distribution area decreasing each year. The annual peak biomass of E. nuttallii was negatively correlated (r > 0.9) with both the ratio of extreme flows during the spring germination period (January to March) and the average flow in the vigorous growth period (April to August). The correlation coefficient between annual peak biomass of E. nuttallii and the annual average flow (r = -0.748), as well as with the average water temperature (r=0.732), were greater than 0.7. Discharge (velocity) and water temperature were the key factors affecting E. nuttallii biomass. (3) Based on the daily harvest of floating E. nuttallii and the inflow to Wangfuzhou Reservoir, we recommend an inflow (i.e., the release from Danjiangkou Reservoir) not less than 1 500 m3/s to carry away mature agglomerates of E. nuttallii, and a single peak flow of 3 500 m3/s to reduce E. nuttallii biomass in the study area by about 40%.
李 建,赵肥西,辛小康,操 瑜,熊 斌,尹 炜.2024.生态调度控制汉江中游入侵沉水植物过度生长效果研究[J].水生态学杂志,45(3):45-51.
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