长江葛洲坝坝下江段鱼类群落结构及多样性
Fish Community Structure and Diversity below Gezhouba Dam in Yangtze River
投稿时间:2022-05-26  修订日期:2024-05-23
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202205260193
中文关键词:群落结构  生物多样性  丰度生物量曲线  葛洲坝
英文关键词:community structure  biodiversity  abundance-biomass comparison curves (ABC curves)  Gezhouba Dam
基金项目:农业农村部项目(cjbzhc2022007);中国长江三峡集团有限公司科研项目(WWKY-2021-0003,WWKY-2020-0079)
作者单位
李 莎 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100 
姜 伟 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100 
李 博 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100 
党莹超 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100 
苏 巍 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100 
戴凌全 三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室湖北 宜昌 443100中国长江三峡集团有限公司长江生态环境工程研究中心湖北 武汉 430014
 
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中文摘要:
      为探究三峡水库运行后长江干流葛洲坝坝下江段鱼类群落结构和生物多样性变化趋势,于2009-2019年冬季进行渔获物野外调查。结果显示,坝下江段共发现鱼类54种,为5目10科43属,其中鲤形目鲤科鱼类最多,占总种类数的58.1%;优势种为铜鱼、瓦氏黄颡鱼、鳜。等级聚类(Cluster)和非度量多维标度排序等多元统计方法(NMDS)将鱼类群落结构分为2009-2013年和2014-2019年2组,相似性分析(ANOSIM)显示,组间差异显著(R=0.875, P<0.05);相似性百分比(SIMPER)表明,引起组间渔获物结构差异的主要贡献者为瓦氏黄颡鱼、铜鱼、圆筒吻鮈、贝氏?、鳜,除了圆筒吻鮈外,2013年以后其他鱼类丰度值均增加。Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Weiner多样性指数和Pielous均匀度指数整体呈下降趋势;丰度生物量曲线(ABC)显示,坝下鱼类群落一直处于受干扰状态。2009-2019年葛洲坝坝下鱼类优势种集中,2013年以后群落结构主要以几种鱼类占主导地位,优势种丰度上升,主要种的种类减少,多样性指数降低,但种类数稍有增加,鳤、胭脂鱼等多年未见的鱼种重现。研究表明,随着生态调度、增殖放流、十年禁渔等生态保护修复措施的日渐成效,坝下鱼类的自然状况会不断好转。
英文摘要:
      In this study, we explored the fish community structure and biodiversity trends in the Yangtze River below Gezhouba Dam after Three Gorges Reservoir began operating. The study was based on fish catch surveys conducted on that section during winter (November - December) from 2009 to 2019. Four sampling sites were set from Gezhouba Dam to Miaozui to obtain fish from different habitats. Fish were identified by species and standard body measurements were recorded. A total of 54 fish species belonging to 43 genera,10 families and 5 orders were identified, with absolute dominance by Cyprinidae that accounted for 58.1% of the total species. The primary dominant species were Coreius heterodon, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Siniperca chuatsi, together accounting for 74.84% of the total number and 71.83% of the total mass. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) show that, during the study period, the fish community was divided into two groups (Group 1, 2009-2013; Group 2, 2014-2019) and they differed significantly (R=0.875, P<0.05). Similarity analysis shows that Pelteobagrus vachelli, Coreius heterodon, Rhinogobio cylindricus, Hemiculter bleekeri and Siniperca chuatsi were the primary species contributing to the structural difference between the two groups and, except Rhinogobio cylindricus, the abundance values of the other fish species all increased after 2013. Ranges for the Margalef richness index (D), Shannon Winner diversity index (H) and Pielou evenness index (J) during the investigation period were, respectively, 2.86-.23, 1.47-2.33, 0.46-0.73, and trended downward. Abundance-biomass comparison curves (ABC) indicate that the fish community below Gezhouba Dam was disturbed continuously during the study period. There was a decline among primary fish species and the dominant species became highly concentrated after 2013, with increasing body length and weight. While overall fish biodiversity decreased, the number of total fish species actually increased slightly and some disappearing fish species, such as Ochetobius elongatus and Myxocyprinus asiaticus, reappeared. Since the implementation of protection and restoration measures, including ecological management, breeding and release, and the ten-year fishing ban, it appears that the fish community below Gezhouba Dam is recovering.
李 莎,姜 伟,李 博,党莹超,苏 巍,戴凌全.2024.长江葛洲坝坝下江段鱼类群落结构及多样性[J].水生态学杂志,45(3):121-130.
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