黄河内蒙古河段水文情势变化及生态效应初探
Ecological Effects of Flow Regime Alteration in Inner Mongolia Reach of the Yellow River
投稿时间:2022-05-20  修订日期:2022-08-10
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202205200181
中文关键词:流量过程  水文情势  鱼类  生态效应  黄河内蒙古河段
英文关键词:flow regime process  water regime  fish  ecological effect  the Inner Mongolia Reach of the Yellow River
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(U21A2002;42007433)
作者单位
米玮洁 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
张 舜 武汉工程大学湖北 武汉 430205 
胡 俊 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
高少波 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
胡菊香 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079 
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中文摘要:
      选择月均流量、日均流量变幅、极端流量和脉冲延时4个水文情势指标,采用IHA-RVA(水文情势变化指标-变化范围法)分析黄河干流内蒙古河段水文情势的时空变化特征,辨析黄河鱼类生态习性与径流组分的响应关系,探讨内蒙古河段流量过程、极端流量变化的生态效应。黄河干流上游河段水利工程运行后,内蒙古河段的水文情势明显改变,进而改变该河段的生态水文联系过程。黄河内蒙古河段枯水期月均流量增加(1、2月份月均流量增幅超过70%)、最小日均流量增加(石嘴山断面最小日流量增幅超过50%),保障了河道流水栖息生境,有利于鱼类越冬。该河段日均流量变幅降低,有利于粘性卵孵化。但是内蒙古河段汛期月均流量减小(7?10月份月均流量降幅接近50%),大、小洪水持续时间缩短,不利于扩展横向栖息地,减少营养、食物来源;最大流量出现时间在上游河段延迟超过2个月、在中下游河段提前约1个月,洪水脉冲刺激时间紊乱可能影响鱼类繁殖行为。研究可为黄河内蒙古河段栖息地保护以及上游水库生态调度提供技术支持。
英文摘要:
      The Inner Mongolia reach of the upper Yellow River (Longyangxia-Liujiaxia section) is the river section with intensive hydropower development and the operation of hydropower station has led to significant changes of flow regime in the river section. In this study, we analyzed temporal and spatial alterations of the flow regime in Inner Mongolia, investigated the response relationship between the fish community and runoff, and discussed the ecological effects of hydrological alterations. The study was based on the long term hydrological data collected at Shizuishan, Sanhuhekou and Toudaoguai. Indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) and the ranges of variability (RVA) were used for the analysis. Fishery resource data was obtained by field investigation combined with market data and fisherman surveys. Results show that the flow regime of the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia changed significantly after the operation of hydropower stations in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, consequently altering river ecohydrology and continuity. During the dry season, the increases in average monthly discharge (> 70% in January and February) and minimum average daily discharge (> 50% at Shizuishan) was helpful for maintaining river flow and fish overwintering. The decreased range in daily discharge benefitted hatching of fish species with adhesive eggs. However, during flood season, average monthly discharge decreased by 50% (from July to October), as did the duration of flooding, and the occurrence of the maximum daily discharge was delayed by two months in the upper river and advanced by nearly a month in the middle and lower river, adversely affecting fish growth and reproduction. Our study provides support for ecological regulation and habitat protection in the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia.
米玮洁,张 舜,胡 俊,高少波,胡菊香.2024.黄河内蒙古河段水文情势变化及生态效应初探[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):42-49.
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