金沙江下游中华金沙鳅自然繁殖的生态水文需求研究
Eco-hydrological Characteristics for Natural Reproduction of Jinshaia sinensis in the Lower Jinsha River
投稿时间:2022-05-15  修订日期:2022-06-22
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202205150166
中文关键词:中华金沙鳅  繁殖  生态水文指标;乌东德水电站
英文关键词:Jinshaia sinensis  reproduction  eco-hydrology parameters  Wudongde Hydropower Station
基金项目:中国长江三峡集团有限公司科研项目(JG/20041B)
作者单位
张登成 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
王 孟 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
李 斐 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
樊 皓 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
于 江 中国三峡建工(集团)有限公司四川 成都610041 
阮 娅 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
张可可 长江水资源保护科学研究所湖北 武汉430051 
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中文摘要:
      开展中华金沙鳅的生态需求研究,在此基础上制定有针对性的生态调度方案,为国内外水利水电工程的生态调度提供参考与借鉴。2017-2019年5-7月在金沙江下游巧家断面进行鱼类早期资源调查,分析中华金沙鳅卵苗径流量与同期水温、流量日上涨量、涨水持续时间等生态水文指标之间的响应关系,掌握刺激中华金沙鳅自然繁殖的生态水文指标和水温阈值,在此基础上提出乌东德水电站生态调度运行要求。结果表明:巧家江段中华金沙鳅产卵高峰期为5月下旬至6月中下旬,产卵高峰期起始水温不低于19.0℃;对应的洪峰过程流量日上涨量平均为358 m3/s,涨水持续天数平均为 5 d,洪峰过程2~3 d后开展大规模产卵;偏相关分析表明中华金沙鳅卵苗径流量与起始水位呈负相关关系,与水位日上涨量、涨水持续时间呈正相关关系,推荐人造洪峰的起始流量为1 160 m3/s(3-7月生态流量),此时对应的乌东德水文站水位为791.1 m,并加大流量日增长率以及增加涨水持续时间,可有效促进中华金沙鳅产卵繁殖。
英文摘要:
      Jinshaia sinensis, a key protected fish species in the river section below the dam of Wudongde Hydropower Station. J. sinensis is typical of the species producing pelagic eggs and spawning is sensitive to changes of water temperature and fluctuations of water flow. In this study, we analyzed the relationship of egg and fry emergence and eco-hydrological parameters during spawning season and identified the ecological conditions associated with J. sinensis spawning. Our aim was to identify the key eco-hydrological parameters and water temperature threshold that stimulates natural reproduction of J. sinensis in the lower reaches of Jinsha River and to provide a reference for the ecological operation of Wudongde Hydropower Station. The study was based on the early fish resource investigation carried out in the Qiaojia section of lower Jinsha River from 2017 to 2019. From May through July, daily sampling of eggs and fry was conducted at depths of 0.5 m, 1.5 m and 3 m below the water surface. Data on daily water flow and temperature were obtained from the Wudongde Hydrological Station. Results show that egg and fry runoff of J. sinensis in the Qiaojia section trended upward during 2017-2019, with respective egg counts of 1.29×106, 1.57×107, 3.29×107. J. sinensis spawning in the Qiaojia section peaked six times during the investigation period, with peak values ranging from 5.64×105 to 6.11×106 eggs. The spawning peaks occurred from late May to late June and lasted 2-5 days. The initial water temperature for spawning peaks was at least 19.0℃, the average daily flow increase was 358 m3/s, and the average flooding period was 5 days. Large scale spawning occurred 2-3 days after the flood peak.[ ] Partial correlation analysis shows a negative correlation between J. sinensis egg/fry runoff and initial water level, and a positive correlation with the daily increase in water level and the duration of flooding. Therefore, to effectively promote J. sinensis spawning, we recommend that the initial flow of the artificial flood peak and water level at Wudongde Hydrological Station should be set at 1 160 m3/s and 791.1 m, and that the daily increase in water flow be intensified and the duration time of flooding be extended.
张登成,王 孟,李 斐,樊 皓,于 江,阮 娅,张可可.2024.金沙江下游中华金沙鳅自然繁殖的生态水文需求研究[J].水生态学杂志,45(1):96-102.
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