莲花洲港航道工程的生态修复效果初步研究
Effect of Ecological Restoration on the Lianhuazhou Port Channel
投稿时间:2021-11-22  修订日期:2021-12-29
DOI:10.15928/j.1674-3075.202201110015
中文关键词:航道工程  生态修复  底栖动物  透水框架  人工鱼巢  莲花洲港
英文关键词:waterway engineering  ecological restoration  zoobenthos  permeable frame  artificial fish nests  Lianhuazhou Port
基金项目:国家重点研发计划-2018YFD0900901;长江干线武汉至安庆段6 m水深航道整治工程 探索生态涵养试验区建设理念及设计方法研究;中国水产科学研究院创新团队项目( 2020TD09);中国长江三峡集团有限公司项目“长江水生生物完整性评价指标体系研究”(202003229)
作者单位
叶丽娟 西南大学水产学院重庆 400715中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
王 珂 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
刘绍平 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
段辛斌 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
于 琪 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
贾春艳 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223上海海洋大学水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海 201306 
陈大庆 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223 
郑永华 西南大学水产学院重庆 400715 
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中文摘要:
      为了解莲花洲港生态涵养区的修复效果,2021年1月、4月、10月在武汉至安庆段的东流水道莲花洲港对底栖动物群落和鱼类分布状况进行调查,设置21个采样点,采集底栖动物和鱼类样品,分析工程区不同区域及非工程区底栖动物和鱼类群落结构差异。结果显示,不同区域底栖动物的种类数不同,透水框架区获取底栖动物6种,鱼巢排区17种,工程其他区域25种,非工程区8种。单因素方差分析表明,不同区域的底栖动物密度差异显著(P<0.05),透水框架区最高,为191.1个/m2,其次为鱼巢排区60.44个/m2,其他工程区44.44个/m2,非工程区较少,仅28.39个/m2。各区域Pielou 均匀度指数(J)差异性不显著(P>0.05),Margalef丰富度指数(D)和Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数(H′)差异性显著(P<0.05)。CCA分析表明,影响底栖动物的环境因子为流速、水深、温度、溶氧、硝态氮、氨氮。水声学调查显示,鱼类密度以透水框架区最高,为25 581.21尾/hm2,鱼巢排区次之,为3 239.00尾/hm2,工程其他区域为808.73尾/hm2,非工程区最低,仅6.82尾/hm2。研究表明,透水框架和鱼巢排营造了适宜底栖动物和鱼类栖息的水流条件,有利于底栖动物生存和鱼类聚集,且透水框架的生态涵养效果优于鱼巢排。
英文摘要:
      To understand the effect of ecological restoration Lianhuazhou Port, we analyzed and compared zoobenthos community structure and fish distribution in the ecological conservation area, including upstream and downstream from the area. In January, April, and October of 2021, zoobenthos surveys and acoustic monitoring of the fish community were carried out at 21 representative sites of the engineered and nonengineered areas. A total of 31 zoobenthos species from 6 classes and 3 phyla were identified during the investigation. Zoobenthos diversity varied spatially, with 6 species observed in the permeable framework area, 17 species in the fish nest area, 25 species in the remaining engineered area and 8 species in the nonengineered area. The density and biomass of zoobenthos was in the range of 0.00-800.00 organisms/m2 and 0.00-42.18 g/m2, with average values of 65.28 organisms/m2 and 1.11 g/m2. Single factor analysis of variance showed significant differences in zoobenthos density among regions (P<0.05), with the highest density (191.1 organisms/m2) in the permeable framework area, followed by the fish nest area (60.44 organisms/m2), the remaining engineered area (44.44 organisms/m2), and the nonengineered area (28.39 organisms/m2). There were no significant differences in the Pielou evenness index (J) among areas (P>0.05), but the Margalef richness index (D) and Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') did differ significantly (P<0.05) among areas. CCA analysis showed that flow velocity, water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen were the environmental factors most affecting the zoobenthos. Underwater acoustic surveys of fish community showed that fish density in the permeable frame area was the highest (25 581.21 fish/hm2), followed by the fish nest area (3 239.00 fish/hm2), the remaining engineered area (808.73 fish/hm2), and the nonengineered area (6.82 fish/hm2). In conclusion, the permeable frame and fish nest both created water flow conditions conducive to zoobenthos survival and fish aggregation, but the effect of permeable frames was better than that of fish nests.
叶丽娟,王 珂,刘绍平,段辛斌,于 琪,贾春艳,陈大庆,郑永华.2023.莲花洲港航道工程的生态修复效果初步研究[J].水生态学杂志,44(5):25-32.
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