6种长江经济鱼类幼鱼对不同生境的偏好性
Habitat Preference of Juveniles of Six Economic Fish Species in the Yangtze River
投稿时间:2021-11-30  修订日期:2022-11-20
中文关键词:长江鱼类  生境偏好  生态修复
英文关键词:Yangtze River fish  habitat preference  habitat restoration
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0900903);中国水产科学研究院创新团队项目(2020TD09);中国水产科学研究院基本科研业务费(2021CG02)
作者单位
王渝栋 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌402460中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
 
高 雷 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
 
段辛斌 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
 
陈大庆 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
 
杨 浩 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌402460中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
 
郭 杰 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业农村部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站湖北 武汉 430223
广西科学院广西北部湾海洋研究中心 广西近海海洋环境科学重点实验室广西 南宁 530007 
郑宗林 广西科学院广西北部湾海洋研究中心 广西近海海洋环境科学重点实验室广西 南宁 530007 
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中文摘要:
      护堤、桥梁、大坝等涉水工程破坏了鱼类栖息地,了解鱼类的生境偏好可为其资源保护和栖息地修复提供理论依据。选择长江流域常见的沙、岩石、沉水植物、挺水植物两两组合成6种生境,选取鳙(Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)、翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)、青鱼(Mylopharyngodon piceus)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)共6种长江经济鱼类幼鱼,进行生境偏好选择模拟试验。结果显示,6种鱼在各个组合生境中对沙生境均没有显著偏好(P>0.05);黄颡鱼在岩石生境中出现的平均数量比为43.92%,且在各个组合生境中均对岩石生境有明显偏好(P<0.05);鳙、翘嘴鲌、团头鲂、鲫、青鱼在沉水植物生境中的平均数量比均为最高,分别为42.01%、41.32%、46.35%、36.11%、44.10%,且鳙、翘嘴鲌、青鱼、团头鲂在各个组合生境中对沉水植物生境均有显著偏好(P<0.05)。研究表明,生境修复方案要根据环境条件和目标物种来确定,在生态修复及人工栖息地的建设过程中,可以利用挺水植物、沉水植物和岩石进行生境恢复,多种组合生境可以为更多鱼类提供适宜的栖息生境。
英文摘要:
      Construction of water-related projects such as embankments, bridges, and dams alters fish habitat and habitat restoration is an important means for protecting fishery resources. In this paper, we carried out a habitat preference simulation experiment on juveniles of six economic fish species in the Yangtze River: bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), topmouth culter (Culter alburnus), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), common carp (Carassius auratus) and banded catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The aim was to better understand the habitat preference of these species in the Yangtze River and provide theoretical basis for protecting and restoring fish habitat. From March to May of 2021, the habitat preference simulation test was carried out in fish tank(120 cm×30 cm×30 cm), and common sand, rocks, submerged plants (Vallisneria natans) and emergent plants (Phragmites australis) in the Yangtze River basin were selected to simulate single feature habitats and double feature habitats in every combination. Twelve healthy juveniles of each species were selected for each trial, and after acclimation for two hours, the test began and the number percentage of each species occurring in the single habitat and each side of the combined habitat was calculated. Results show that none of the six species had a significant preference for sandy habitat in each combined habitat (P>0.05). The average percent of banded catfish in the rock habitat was 43.92%, and banded catfish had a significant preference for rock habitat in each combined habitat (P<0.05). Bighead carp, topmouth culter, blunt snout bream, common carp and black carp had the highest average number ratio in the submerged plant habitat, and the respective percentages were 42.01%, 41.32%, 46.35%, 36.11% and 44.10%. Further, bighead carp, topmouth culter, black carp and blunt snout bream also displayed a significant preference for submerged plant habitat in each combined habitat (P<0.05). In conclusion, the scheme of habitat restoration should be determined according to environmental conditions and target species. We recommend emergent plants, submerged plants and a rocky substrate for habitat restoration, and the use of multiple combined habitats to provide suitable habitat for different fish species.
王渝栋,高 雷,段辛斌,陈大庆,杨 浩,郭 杰,郑宗林.2022.6种长江经济鱼类幼鱼对不同生境的偏好性[J].水生态学杂志,43(6):124-130.
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