牛至油对慢性氨氮胁迫下幼鲤组织结构的影响
Effects of Oregano Oil on the Histology of Juvenile Common Carp Stressed by Ammonia Nitrogen
投稿时间:2021-10-02  修订日期:2021-10-30
中文关键词:牛至油  慢性氨氮胁迫  幼鲤  组织结构
英文关键词:oregano oil  chronic ammonia stress  juvenile common carps  histological structure
基金项目:西南大学博士基金项目(SWU118085)
作者单位
孟骞骞 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
张雨晴 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460中国科学院水生生物研究所湖北 武汉430072 
谭智敏 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
周针宇 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
田佳明 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
谢开英 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
李萍 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
沈水宝 广西大学动物科技学院广西 南宁 530000
 
王文秀 山东省滨州畜牧兽医研究院, 山东 滨州 256600 
霍芳 山东省滨州畜牧兽医研究院, 山东 滨州 256600 
王文娟 西南大学水产学院重庆 荣昌 402460 
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中文摘要:
      探讨牛至油对慢性氨氮胁迫下幼鲤各器官组织结构的保护作用,为集约化水产养殖条件下确定牛至油合适的添加量提供参考依据。挑选450尾初始体重为(17.02 ± 0.40)g的幼鲤,随机分为6组:L(对照组,养于正常水体中并饲喂基础饲料);L0、L300、L600、L900、L1200(试验组,养于<4.87 ± 0.21 > mg/L氨氮水体中并分别饲喂添加0、300、600、900、1200 mg/kg牛至油的试验饲料),每组设3个重复,每个重复25尾鱼,养殖试验为期56 d。结果表明,添加量为900 mg/kg时,牛至油对鳃、肝、肾组织发挥的缓解作用最大;当牛至油添加量达到1200 mg/kg 时,其缓解氨氮胁迫的作用降低。日粮中牛至油添加量为300、600、900 mg/kg可以显著增加肠绒毛高度;当牛至油添加量达到1200 mg/kg时,牛至油对于肠绒毛的促生长作用减弱。在试验条件下,日粮中添加900 mg/kg的牛至油能够最大程度地缓解由氨氮胁迫造成的幼鲤鳃、肝和肾组织的损伤,并且对于幼鲤肠绒毛的生长具有促进作用。
英文摘要:
      Ammonia nitrogen is a primary environmental stressor for the growth and health of aquatic life. Non-ionic ammonia, one of the primary forms of ammonia nitrogen in waters, is toxic to fish and acts by damaging important organs, such as the gills, kidneys, liver and intestine, which results in declining disease resistance, growth rate and survival rate. Thus, to improve the growth performance and survival rates, it is crucial to promote healing of the histological lesions caused by ammonia nitrogen. In this study, a 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oregano oil on the gills, liver, kidneys and intestine of juvenile common carps under chronic ammonia stress. Our aim was to provide evidence for the beneficial effects of adding dietary oregano oil in intensive aquaculture. A total of 450 juvenile common carps with initial body weight of (17.02 ± 0.40) g were selected and randomly assigned to 18 tanks divided into six groups with three replicates per group. The control group (L) was exposed to normal water and fed a basic diet, and the five experimental groups (L0, L300, L600, L900, L1 200) were all exposed to water with ammonia nitrogen of (4.87 ± 0.21) mg/L and fed diets containing 0, 300, 600, 900, 1 200 mg/kg of oregano oil. Under the chronic stress of ammonia nitrogen, the final weight, weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the L0 group were significantly lower than those of the control group L (P<0.05). With increased oregano oil in diet, the three growth parameters all increased initially and then decreased, peaking in the L600 group. There were no significant differences in the growth parameters among the L300, L600, L900 groups (P>0.05), but all were significantly higher than those for the L0 group (P<0.05), and the weight gain of the L600 group was significantly higher than that of the L1 200 group (P<0.05). Supplementing the diet with oregano oil effectively alleviated the damage of chronic ammonia nitrogen stress to the gill, liver, kidney and intestine histology of juvenile common carps, with the best alleviation found in L900 group and the effect was less at 1 200mg/kg. The dietary oregano oil in the L300, L600 and L900 groups significantly increased the height of intestinal villi and promoted intestinal tract growth and development. At a level of 1 200mg/kg, the growth-promoting effect of oregano oil on intestinal villi weakened. In conclusion, the optimal supplement of dietary oregano oil was 900 mg/kg for alleviating damage to the gills, liver, kidneys and intestine caused by ammonia nitrogen, and for promoting the growth of intestinal villi in juvenile common carps.
孟骞骞,张雨晴,谭智敏,周针宇,田佳明,谢开英,李萍,沈水宝,王文秀,霍芳,王文娟.2022.牛至油对慢性氨氮胁迫下幼鲤组织结构的影响[J].水生态学杂志,43(6):146-158.
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