2020年湘江长沙段仔稚鱼资源现状及其对水文环境的响应
Status of Larval and Juvenile Fish Resources and Their Response to the Hydrology in the Changsha Section of Xiangjiang River
投稿时间:2021-08-16  修订日期:2022-08-30
中文关键词:仔稚鱼  资源监测  水文环境  湘江长沙段
英文关键词:larval and juvenile fish  resource monitoring  hydrological environment  Changsha section of the Xiangjiang River
基金项目:农业农村部2018年物种品种资源保护费项目(171821301354052393);长沙市自然科学基金(kq2202354)
作者单位
吴启藩 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
高峰 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
彭治桃 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
左之良 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
李金龙 湖南省水产科学研究所长沙 410153 
程小飞 湖南省水产科学研究所长沙 410153 
苏东旭 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
李跃辉 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
向劲 湖南省水产原种场长沙 410153 
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中文摘要:
      研究仔稚鱼资源时空分布及其与水文环境的关系,为湘江仔稚鱼资源监测及长江十年禁渔效果评估提供本底数据及理论参考。2020年5-6月,在湘江下游长沙香炉洲江段进行为期57d的仔稚鱼资源调查,以弶网采集鱼卵及仔稚鱼,每周采样2d,每次采样时长15min。结果显示:(1)采集点共出现苗汛7次,第一次为5月22日,最后一次为6月29日,7次鱼汛平均水温为(26.5±0.57) ℃,网口平均流速为(0.237±0.095)m/s;(2)共采集仔稚鱼54.8万尾,隶属5目8科41种,以产沉性卵鱼类(23种)和广适性鱼类(24种)为主,分别占56.1%、58.5%,鲤科鱼类31种、占比75.6%,优势种9种:子陵吻虾虎鱼(Rhinogobius giurinus)、飘鱼(Pseudolaubuca sinensis)、大鳍鱊(Acheilognathus macropterus)、银鲴(Xenocypris argentea)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、?(Hemiculter leucisculus)、黄尾鲴(Xenocypris davidi)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和麦穗鱼(Pseudorabora parva);(3)白天时段仔稚鱼总密度(0.093尾/m3)仅为夜间(0.567 尾/m3)的1/6,鲴类的昼夜差异更加明显,夜晚为白天的25倍,大鳍鱊、子陵吻虾虎鱼、银鲴及草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon diellus)昼夜分布存在显著差异;(4)表层仔稚鱼密度(0.548尾/m3)为中下层(1.048 尾/m3)的1/2,且子陵吻虾虎鱼、银鲴、鲤(Cyprinus carpio)及草鱼垂直分布存在显著差异;(5)流速对方差的贡献率为90.8%,与仔稚鱼总密度变化呈显著性相关(P=0.042),但与优势种及家鱼种类未表现出显著相关性,水温贡献率为9.2%,未表现出显著相关性。应进一步完善湘江长沙段仔稚鱼资源时空分布规律及其对水文环境响应的调查研究。
英文摘要:
      In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of larval and juvenile fish resources and their relationship with the hydrological environment in the Changsha Section of Xiangjiang River. The aim was to provide baseline data and a theoretical reference for monitoring larval and juvenile fish resources in Xiangjiang River and to evaluate the effect of the ten-year fishing ban in Yangtze River. A 57-day survey of larval and juvenile fish resources was conducted in the Xiangluzhou section of the lower Xiangjiang River in Changsha City during May and June of 2020. The fish eggs, larval and juvenile fish were collected with a special net, and the sampling was carried out 2 days per week with a sampling time of 15 min. Results show: (1) Seven batches of fish fry were observed during the survey, the first batch on May 22 and the last batch on June 29. The average water temperature and flow velocity during the seven fry peaks were (26.5±0.57) ℃ and (0.237±0.095) m/s. (2) A total of 547 831 larval and juvenile fish were collected that included 41 species, belonging to 8 families and 5 orders. In terms of egg types, there were 23 fish species with demersal eggs, 15 species with floating eggs and 3 species with other types of eggs. In terms of the ecological habits, there were 24 widely adaptable species, 11 localized species and 6 species that prefer flowing water. Among the fish collected, there were 31 cyprinid species, accounting for 75.6% of the total fish species collected. A total of nine dominant species were observed: Rhinogobius giurinus, Pseudolaubuca sinensis, Acheilognathus macropterus, Xenocypris argentea, Cyprinus carpio, Hemiculter leucisculus, Xenocypris davidi, Carassius auratus and Pseudorabora parva. (3) The total density of larval and juvenile fish was 0.093 ind/m3 during the day and 0.567 ind/m3 at night. There were significant differences in the diurnal distribution of R. giurinus, A. macropterus, X. argentea and Ctenopharyngodon idella. Diurnal variation of Xenocypris species was most pronounced, with density at night 25 times higher than that in the day. (4) The density of larval and juvenile fish in the surface layer (0.548 ind/m3) was only half of that in the middle and lower layers (1.048 ind/m3), and there were significant differences in the vertical distribution of R. giurinus, X. argentea, Cyprinus carpio and C. idella. (5) Flow velocity contributed 90.8 % to the variance of larval and juvenile fish density and was significantly correlated with changes in the total density of larval and juvenile fish (P=0.042). However, there was no significant correlation between flow velocity and dominant species or domestic fish species. Water temperature contributed 9.2% to the variance of larval and juvenile fish density, indicating no significant correlation. In the future, research on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval and juvenile fish in the Changsha section of the Xiangjiang River, as well as their response to the hydrological environment should continue and be refined.
吴启藩,高峰,彭治桃,左之良,李金龙,程小飞,苏东旭,李跃辉,向劲.2022.2020年湘江长沙段仔稚鱼资源现状及其对水文环境的响应[J].水生态学杂志,43(5):99-105.
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