塔里木河流域水土流失动态变化分析
Soil Alteration and Water Loss in the Tarim River Basin
投稿时间:2021-07-02  修订日期:2022-05-16
中文关键词:土地利用  径流量  输沙量  塔里木河流域
英文关键词:land use  runoff  sediment transport  Tarim River basin
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51879278)
作者单位
刘雨曈 四川大学水利水电学院, 四川 成都 610065 
摘要点击次数: 201
全文下载次数: 52
中文摘要:
      研究塔里木河流域土地利用变化、年径流量和输沙量变化特征及其相关关系,以期促进水土资源的合理开发和利用,为塔里木河流域的生态环境治理提供科学依据。水文数据为2005-2020年流域焉耆站、同古孜洛克站、卡群站、西大桥站、阿拉尔站年径流量、年输沙量,土地利用数据为1980-2015年土地利用空间分布数据。结果表明:(1)1980-2015年,土地利用面积比例变化为-1.07%~1.16%,耕地面积增幅为1.16%,沙地面积增幅0.30%,草地面积降幅1.07%;(2)流域内各主要河流多年平均径流量为22.99×108~67.46×108 m3,多年平均输沙量63.20×104~3070.00×104t;开都河多年平均含沙量为0.24 kg/m3,其余河流平均含沙量均大于4kg/m3;塔里木河流域年径流量和年输沙量均呈现下降变化趋势,且年输沙量的变异性(40.89%~73.11%)大于年径流量(15.54%~35.37%);(3)各主要河流的年径流量、年输沙量与耕地和城乡居民用地的占比均呈负相关关系,与林地、草地、沙地等均呈现正相关关系。建议合理进行土地开发,禁止盲目开荒种田,充分运用智能化手段开展在线动态监测,及时掌握水土流失情况,恢复和重建塔里木河流域生态。
英文摘要:
      Soil erosion is a common concern and an urgent problem all over the world. This study was carried out to clarify the current state of soil and water loss in the Tarim River basin and put forward countermeasures to improve the situation. The variation of land use in the area from 1980 to 2015, and the annual runoff and sediment transport from 2005 to 2020 were analyzed. The correlations between land use change, annual runoff, and sediment transport in the Tarim River basin were then explored. Finally, based on the spatial distribution of land use, runoff and sediment transport in four tributary basins (Kaidu River, Aksu River, Yerqiang River and Yulongkashi River) during the same period, the causes and trends of soil erosion in the Tarim River basin were discussed from the perspective of human factors and natural climate conditions. Results show that: (1) The percentage changes among the various land uses, over the entire basin from 1980 to 2015, ranged from -1.07% to 1.16%. The largest increase was in cultivated land area (1.16%), sandy land increased by 0.30% and the largest decrease was in grassland area (1.07%). (2) The annual average runoff to the primary rivers in the basin was 22.99×109-67.46×108 m9, and the annual average sediment transport was 63.20×104-3 470.00×104 t. The average sediment concentration of Kaidu River was 0.24 kg/m3, while the average sediment concentration in other rivers was more than 4 kg/m3, categorized as high sediment flow. Due to climate conditions and land use changes, the annual runoff and sediment yield in the Tarim River basin trended downward, and the variability of annual sediment yield (40.89%-73.11%) was higher than the variability of annual runoff (15.54%-35.37%). (3) The annual runoff and sediment transport in the primary rivers were negatively correlated with the proportion of cultivated land and residential land (both urban and rural), and positively correlated with woodland, grassland, and sandy land. Based on the above results, we recommend implementing a plan for the rational development of land use in the basin, conducting online dynamic monitoring of land use to better understand the status of soil and water loss, and the reconstruction and restoration of the Tarim River basin ecosystem. These results provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development and utilization of water and soil resources and environmental management in the Tarim River Basin.
刘雨曈.2022.塔里木河流域水土流失动态变化分析[J].水生态学杂志,43(3):105-112.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
Copyright © 2008 《水生态学杂志》编辑部 地址:湖北省武汉市雄楚大街578号 
邮编:430079 电话:027-82926630 E-mail: sstx@mail.ihe.ac.cn  京ICP备09084417号