蓄水运行时长对鱼类群落结构及生态类型的影响——以乌江下游银盘电站为例
Impact of Impoundment and Operation of Yinpan Hydropower Station on Fish Community Structure and Ecological Type in Wujiang River
投稿时间:2021-06-22  修订日期:2021-07-29
中文关键词:鱼类群落结构  生态类型  梯级电站  河流生境  乌江
英文关键词:fish community structure  ecological type  cascaded hydropower stations  river habitat  Wujiang River
基金项目:农业财政专项(CJDC-2017-03);三峡工程影响水域重要水生生物遗传资源保护(12620200600020J005);长江流域水生态及重点水域富营养化状况调查与评价(水规计[2017]50号)
作者单位
熊美华 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉430079 
邵 科 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉430079 
史 方 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉430079 
徐 念 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉430079 
刘小帅 雅砻江流域水电开发有限公司四川 成都610056 
叶 卿 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心上海202162 
朱 滨 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北省水生态保护与修复工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉430079 
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中文摘要:
      研究梯级电站建设及运行不同阶段导致的河流生境变化对鱼类群落结构和生态类型的影响,为制定该区域鱼类针对性的保护方案,恢复该江段的鱼类资源和鱼类多样性水平提供策略。2005—2017年在乌江下游银盘电站坝上坝下江段开展了蓄水前(2005、2008、2009年)、蓄水后2年(2011、2012年)、蓄水后6年(2017年)共6个年度的鱼类资源监测,采用多样性指数和多元统计方法分析了该江段鱼类种类组成、群落结构特征及其变化。6个年度共监测到鱼类93种,鱼类种类数在水库建成蓄水后呈现先降低后升高的趋势。受生境变化影响,鱼类优势物种发生变化,电站蓄水后静缓流生境鱼类显著增加,特别是蓄水后2年内静水型鱼类骤然增多。蓄水前后鱼类群落结构也发生了变化,在61.79%的Bray-Curtis相似性水平上,蓄水前鱼类聚为一组,蓄水后2年的鱼类聚为一组,2017年单独一组(P<0.05)。总体上看,生态类型组成上以缓流型、底层、定居性、杂食性和产粘性卵鱼类占优;蓄水后2年中上层鱼类和静水型鱼类个体数占比显著增大。建立有效的保护措施需在对鱼类资源进行持续监测的基础上,综合考虑电站运行特点及支流状况。
英文摘要:
      Yinpan hydropower station began operation in April 2011 and is one of 11 cascaded hydropower stations on Wujiang River. In this study, we analyzed fish resource conditions and community structure before (2005, 2008, 2009) and after (2011, 2012, 2017) the impoundment of Yinpan reservoir. The analysis was then used to assess the impact of river habitat alteration caused by the cascaded power station and operation duration on fish community structure and ecological type. The objective was to provide a reference to support strategic planning to conserve fish resources and restore biodiversity in this river section. The study was based on fish resource surveys conducted in each of the years previously listed, above and below Yinpan hydropower station in the lower reaches of Wujiang River. Fish species composition and community structure were analyzed using diversity indices and multivariate statistical methods. A total of 93 fish species were recorded over the 6 years, and the number of species recorded by year were 52, 60, 69, 47 , 39 and 48 in 2005, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2017, respectively. There was an upward trend before impoundment and a marked decrease after impoundment, with significant recovery by 2017. As a result of habitat alteration, the dominant fish species changed significantly to species that prefer lacustrine conditions. The Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou evenness indices of the fish community were stable in 2005, 2008 and 2009, but decreased dramatically the first two years after the impoundment and then increased significantly by 2017. The Margalef richness index gradually increased before impoundment, decreased sharply for the first two years after impoundment and then increased significantly in 2017. Cluster analysis shows that the fish community structure changed after impoundment and the community, in the six years surveyed, clustered into three groups (Bray-Curtis similarity level of 61.79%). The fish communities during 2005, 2008 and 2009 clustered as a single group,those in the first two years after impoundment (2011, 2012) clustered as the second group, and the fish community in 2017 formed a third group that was significantly different (p<0.05). After impoundment, the dominant ecological types were omnivorous fish species that prefer slow water, inhabit bottom water and lay viscous eggs. However, the proportion of fish species that prefer the upper water layer and static water had increased significantly by 2017. Based on these findings, in order to establish effective protection measures, it is necessary to consider the operating characteristics of the power station and the status of tributaries, based on continuous monitoring of fish resources.
熊美华,邵 科,史 方,徐 念,刘小帅,叶 卿,朱 滨.2022.蓄水运行时长对鱼类群落结构及生态类型的影响——以乌江下游银盘电站为例[J].水生态学杂志,43(6):25-34.
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