生态浮床的水质净化效果及其甲藻抑制作用
Using an Ecological Floating Bed for Water Purification and Dinoflagellate Inhibition
投稿时间:2021-04-15  修订日期:2022-09-08
中文关键词:生态浮床  水质净化  浮游植物  甲藻
英文关键词:ecological floating bed  water purification  phytoplankton  dinoflagellates
基金项目:湖北省环保科研专项(2018HB01)
作者单位
郑志杰 长江大学城市建设学院湖北 荆州 434103 
彭 波 长江大学城市建设学院湖北 荆州 434103 
何 鑫 长江大学城市建设学院湖北 荆州 434103湖北省生态环境科学研究院湖北 武汉 430072 
黄向阳 长江大学城市建设学院湖北 荆州 434103 
吴小刚 长江大学城市建设学院湖北 荆州 434103湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心湖北 荆州 434025 
陈晓飞 湖北省生态环境科学研究院湖北 武汉 430072 
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中文摘要:
      为探究生态浮床的水质净化效果及其对藻类生长的影响,在水库河道设置组合式生态浮床开展水质净化及甲藻控制试验。通过组合水生植物(美人蕉、风车草、浮萍)与水生动物(鲢、鳙),测定夏季(8月)和秋季(11月)试验浮床的上、下游以及浮床内的水质指标,分析温度、pH、氮、磷、CODMn等水质指标的时空变化,阐明水质理化参数与藻类生物量的关系。结果显示,夏季生态浮床对CODMn、TP、NO2?-N、TN、NH4+-N去除率分别为38.33%、36.05%、26.77%、11.52%、6.19%,而秋季的TP、NH4+-N、NO2?-N营养盐反而增加。夏、秋季浮床对甲藻的抑制率为73.95%、51.70%,表明浮床对甲藻有明显控制作用,且夏季控制效果优于秋季。浮床上游、内部、下游的甲藻占总藻比例也由夏季的19.16%、14.99%、6.91%上升至秋季的78.18%、47.77%、77.84%,与秋季植物死亡、总藻生物量减少、化感作用减弱、竞争效应下降有关。相关性分析表明,温度、pH与总藻呈正相关(P<0.05),表明随着温度升高,藻类生长繁殖能力及光合作用增强,对水体中碳酸与碳酸盐平衡产生了影响,使得水体pH值上升;而氮磷指标与总藻生物量呈负相关,表明藻类等浮游生物的大量繁殖会消耗水体中的氮磷营养盐。
英文摘要:
      In March 2019, a combined ecological floating bed was constructed and tested in a tributary of a drinking water reservoir to determine its effectiveness for water purification and dinoflagellate control. The total test area was 1 056 m2 with the ecological floating bed covering 864 m2 and composed of aquatic plants (canna, windmill grass and duckweed) and animals (silver carp and bighead carp). On August 2 (summer) and November 10 (autumn) of 2019, water samples were collected upstream, downstream and within the ecological floating bed for determination of water quality parameters. A push-flow model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial changes of several water quality indices including pH, TN, TP, and CODMn. The water purification effect of ecological floating bed and its influence on algae growth was explored based on the results, and the relationship between physicochemical parameters of water and algae biomass were analyzed. During normal operation of the ecological floating bed in summer, the removal of CODMn, TP, NO2?-N, TN, and NH4+-N were, respectively, 38.33%, 36.05%, 26.77%, 11.52%, and 6.19%, but in autumn TP, NH4+-N and NO2?-N levels increased. The rapid growth of plants in summer effectively removed and partially controlled nutrients, while the death and decomposition of plants and animals in the floating bed during autumn released nitrogen and phosphorus. The floating bed had a significant effect on dinoflagellate control, but was more effective in the summer (73.95% reduction in summer, 51.70% in autumn). The proportions of dinoflagellates in the total algae were 19.16% upstream, 14.99 within and 6.91% downstream of the floating bed in summer and the respective values were 78.18%, 47.77%, and 77.84% in autumn. Environmental conditions were more suitable for dinoflagellate growth in autumn due to plant die-off and decreased algae biomass that weaken allelopathy and competition. Correlation analysis showed that total algae correlated positively with water temperature and pH (P<0.05). Higher temperatures enhance algal growth and reproduction, increasing the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbonic acid (H2CO3) to bicarbonate (HCO3-), increasing pH and inhibiting dinoflagellate growth. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the water were negatively correlated with total algal biomass, indicating that massive algal growth consumed nitrogen and phosphorus.
郑志杰,彭 波,何 鑫,黄向阳,吴小刚,陈晓飞.2022.生态浮床的水质净化效果及其甲藻抑制作用[J].水生态学杂志,43(5):67-72.
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