淮河流域常规水质指标测定及其变化趋势分析
Assessment and Trend Analysis of Water Quality in the Huaihe River Basin
投稿时间:2021-04-08  修订日期:2022-09-09
中文关键词:淮河流域  沂沭泗河水系  水质指标  Kendall趋势检验法
英文关键词:Huaihe River Basin  Yisusi River  water quality index  Kendall test
基金项目:
作者单位
陈开放 上海宝冶集团有限公司上海 200941 
吴李军 上海宝冶集团有限公司上海 200941 
周海生 濮阳黄河河务局河南 濮阳 457000 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究淮河流域在经济快速发展和城市化进程背景下的水质变化,采用季节性 Kendall 趋势检验法对2003-2019年淮河流域110个监测断面水质变化进行了评估与分析。断面监测频率为双月(2003?2006年)或逐月(2007?2019年)中旬,主要测定水质指标为CODMn、CODCr、NH3-N 和 TP。选取各流域土地利用最大的3种类型(林 地、耕地和城镇用地)数据以及同期子流域各监测断面水质数据建立线性拟合方程,分析水质与土地利用类型的响应关系。结果表明,2003-2019年淮河流域水质治理成效显著,水质呈好转趋势。Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水体比例呈上升趋势, 劣Ⅴ类水体比例呈明显下降趋势,其中以沂沭泗河水系 CODCr和 NH3-N 指标改善最为明显;但流域内 12.73%、14.54%、16.36%、45.46%监测断面的CODCr、CODMn、NH3-N、TP指标有恶化趋势,尤其是淮河下游和沂沭泗河水系的TP污染有加重趋势。淮河流域各子流域CODMn、NH3-N以及TP指标与耕地和城镇用地面积比例显著正相关,其中耕地和城镇用地是污染物的主要产生“源”,当耕地或城镇用地面积组成越高时,源强越大,对水质的恶化影响也越大;而CODMn、NH3-N、TP指标与林地面积呈负相关,林地作为水体潜在污染物“汇”,能很好地拦截和缓冲降雨冲刷产生的污染物,当流域内林地面积增加,污染物浓度则降低。未来淮河流域水环境管理措施应结合水系水质分区,优化土地利用结构,加强磷污染的管理,重点把控高污染、易反复的地区和水质指标。
英文摘要:
      The Huaihe River Basin is an important economic area of the plains region of China. Due to rapid economic development and urbanization, water quality in the basin has changed dramatically. In this study, we analyzed water quality trends in Huaihe River Basin based on a long-term time series (2003-2019) of water quality data collected at 110 monitoring sections. The Kendall test was used to quantitatively assess the primary water quality parameters during the period of record and the aim was to provide guidance for managing the water environment of the basin. Water quality in the Huaihe River Basin trended upward from 2003 to 2019 and water quality treatment has clearly been effective. The proportion of water bodies meeting water quality standard I-III increased while the proportion failing to meet water quality standard V decreased, with the decreases in CODCr and NH3-N in Yisusi River most evident. The proportions of monitoring sections that displayed increased levels of CODCr, CODMn, NH3-N and TP were, respectively, 12.73%, 14.54%, 16.36% and 45.46%. In particular, TP pollution in the lower Huaihe River and Yisusi River increased dramatically. In all sub-basins, there was a significant positive correlation of CODMn, NH3-N and TP levels with the proportions of cultivated land and urban land,strongly indicating that these two land uses are the primary pollution sources. The larger the cultivated land or urban land area, the greater the source strength and the larger the negative impact on water quality. Further, CODMn, NH3-N and TP levels were negatively correlated with the woodland area, indicating that forest land is a pollutant sink, effectively intercepting pollutants and buffering rainfall erosion. Where woodland areas in the basin increased, pollutant concentrations decreased. In the future, water environment management in the Huaihe River Basin should be based on establishing water quality zones, optimizing land use, controlling phosphorus pollution and focusing on the control of water quality in areas of high pollutant concentration and repeated violation of standards.
陈开放,吴李军,周海生.2022.淮河流域常规水质指标测定及其变化趋势分析[J].水生态学杂志,43(5):15-21.
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