西藏年楚河流域温泉水水化学特征及其环境意义
Hydrochemistry and Environmental Significance of Hot Springs in the Nyangqu River Basin, Tibet
投稿时间:2021-03-29  修订日期:2021-06-17
中文关键词:年楚河流域温泉  水化学特征  物源机制  热储温度
英文关键词:hot spring water in Nyangqu River basin  aquatic chemistry  source mechanism  thermal storage temperature
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(22066022,21667027)
作者单位
仁增拉姆 西藏大学理学院 高原流域环境化学实验室西藏 拉萨 850000 
罗 珍 西藏大学理学院 高原流域环境化学实验室西藏 拉萨 850000 
叶浠倩 西藏大学理学院 高原流域环境化学实验室西藏 拉萨 850000 
德青曲桑 西藏大学理学院 高原流域环境化学实验室西藏 拉萨 850000 
黄 香 西藏大学理学院 高原流域环境化学实验室西藏 拉萨 850000 
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中文摘要:
      西藏年楚河沿断裂带发育,其流域内温泉出露分布广泛,但开发利用率较低。揭示流域温泉水的水化学变化特征及其影响因素,使这些温泉水化学特征信息得到更新,为年楚河流域温泉开发利用提供技术支撑。于2019年10月对该流域内5处温泉(金嘎温泉、康马察多温泉、查当微温泉、沙拉岗温泉和孟扎温泉)水化学特征及对特征组分的物源机制进行分析,并采用SiO2温标法估算其热储温度。结果表明,研究区温泉水为中偏酸性水,水温在17.9~42.3 ℃,热储温度在61.8~110.1 ℃,属于低温地热系统。各温泉的电导率、矿化度和总溶解性固体分别在1.00~4.09 mS/cm、0.49~2.48 g/L和0.71~2.87 g/L,属于淡水或微咸水。与流域地表水不同,Na+和HCO3-分别是这些温泉水中的主导阳离子和阴离子。水化学类型分别为金嘎温泉:Na-HCO3·Cl型,康马察多温泉:Ca·Na-HCO3·Cl型,查当微温泉:Ca-HCO3,沙拉岗温泉:Na-HCO3型,孟扎温泉:Na·Ca-HCO3型。各温泉水中这些主要离子组分受流域内分布的长石、石英等硅酸盐岩的溶解影响显著。整体上金嘎温泉和察多温泉构造环境比较封闭,径流路径较长,受到浅层水的影响较小;而查当微温泉、孟扎温泉和沙拉岗温泉的构造开启性较好,储存环境较开放,一定程度上受到了浅层水的影响。除此之外,被测的18种微量组分(Ag、Al、Cd、Co、Cr、Cu、Fe、Hg、Mo、Mn、Ni、Pb、Se、Ti和Zn以及CO3-、NO3-和PO43-)的含量均较低。总体而言,年楚河流域内这5处温泉水的水化学基本只受自然过程作用的控制。但温泉洗浴排放和泉水的季节性外泄对流域地表水生态环境的影响不容忽视。
英文摘要:
      The Nyangqu River lies along a fault zone in Southern Tibet and hot springs are widely distributed in the river basin. However, the exploitation and utilization rate of the hot springs are low and insufficient. In this study, we characterized the aquatic chemistry and identified the factors influencing hot spring water in the Nyangqu River basin. The objective was to revise basic chemical data on the hot springs and provide technical support for developing and using the hot springs. Five hot springs (Jinga, Kangmachaduo, Chadangwei, Mengzha and Shalagang) were selected for the study. In October 2019, water samples were collected at 8 sampling sites for determination of physicochemical parameters and identification of major ion sources. The thermal storage temperature of each hot spring was estimated based on the silica?geothermometer. Results show that the water in the hot springs was neutral to slightly acidic. The water temperature range wa 17.9 ℃-42.3 ℃, and the thermal storage temperature range was 61.8 ℃-110.1℃, indicating that the hot springs are a low temperature geothermal system. The ranges of electrical conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solid (TDS) were, respectively, 1.00-4.09 mS/cm, 0.49-2.48 g/L and 0.71-2.87 g/L, indicating that the hot spring water is fresh but slightly salty. Sodium (Na+) and bicarbonate (HCO3- ) were the dominate cation and anion in the hot spring waters, unlike surface waters in the region. The hydrochemical type of each hot spring was as follows: Jinga (Na-HCO3·Cl), Kangmachaduo (Ca·Na-HCO3·Cl), Chadangwei (Ca-HCO3), Shalagang (Na-HCO3) and Mengzha (Na·Ca-HCO3). Weathering and dissolution of silicate rocks such as feldspar and quartz were the major controlling factors for the composition of water in these hot springs. In addition, the concentrations of 18 trace components were determined (Ag, Al, Cd, co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Ti and Zn; CO3-, NO3- and PO43-) and all were low. Jinga Hot Spring and Kangmachaduo Hot Spring have a relatively closed structural environment and a longer runoff path that is less affected by shallow waters. However, Chadangwei Hot Spring, Mengzha Hot Spring and Shalagang Hot Spring have a relatively open structure and higher storage capacity but could be affected by shallow waters. The hydrochemistry of the hot spring waters studied in this work is basically controlled by natural processes. Nevertheless, the impact of bathing water discharge and seasonal discharge from springs on regional surface water quality should be considered.
仁增拉姆,罗 珍,叶浠倩,德青曲桑,黄 香.2022.西藏年楚河流域温泉水水化学特征及其环境意义[J].水生态学杂志,43(5):33-41.
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