海河流域大清河水系的鱼类多样性
Fish Community Diversity in the Daqing River System of Haihe River Basin
投稿时间:2021-01-11  修订日期:2022-07-18
中文关键词:海河流域  鱼类资源  生物多样性  大清河
英文关键词:Haihe River  fish resources  biodiversity  Daqing River
基金项目:生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HC6001006);国家自然科学基金(51621092,51609166);世界银行贷款中国经济改革促进与能力加强项目(A13-2018)
作者单位
周绪申 中国科学院动物研究所 动物进化与系统学重点实验室北京100101天津大学 水利工程仿真与安全港口重点实验室天津300072生态环境部海河流域北海海域生态环境监督管理局 生态环境监测与科学研究中心天津 300170 
胡 振 生态环境部海河流域北海海域生态环境监督管理局 生态环境监测与科学研究中心天津 300170 
孟宪智 生态环境部海河流域北海海域生态环境监督管理局 生态环境监测与科学研究中心天津 300170 
张 浩 生态环境部海河流域北海海域生态环境监督管理局 生态环境监测与科学研究中心天津 300170 
王立明 水利部海河水利委员会 水资源保护科学研究所天津 300170 
赵亚辉 中国科学院动物研究所 动物进化与系统学重点实验室北京100101 
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中文摘要:
      大清河水系是海河流域最重要的组成部分,了解其鱼类多样性现状及特征对于京津冀一体化背景下流域水生生态保护有重要的科学价值。2018—2019年对大清河水系进行多次鱼类调查,并结合历史文献资料对大清河鱼类进行了详细梳理;以α多样性分析方法为基础,通过不同多样性指数反映大清河鱼类多样性现状。结果显示,大清河水系统计鱼类共85种,其中自然分布的淡水鱼类计8目、17科、59属、78种,以广布种为主,珍稀濒危物种占比低是大清河鱼类组成的重要特征;现状调查到鱼类42种,其中水系自然分布的种类仅33种,且以小型鱼类为主。Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou均匀性指数分别为1.98、1.14、0.81,与海河流域其他水系相比,大清河水系鱼类物种多样性较低,且各区域分布较均匀。目前流域鱼类区系的完整性已被严重破坏,鱼类多样性呈现出显著的下降趋势。经济发展驱动的用水需求和大清河水资源不足是导致鱼类多样性减少的主要原因,生境变化、水域污染、水工建设、过度捕捞等也是不可忽视的因素。研究表明,保证一定生态流量、恢复河流连通性、加强水污染治理、开展人工增殖放流、加大禁捕力度,可改善流域鱼类多样性偏低的现状。
英文摘要:
      The Daqing River is an important component of the Haihe River basin. Fish, as the top group of the aquatic ecosystem, play an irreplaceable role in conserving water resource security. Therefore, it is important to understand fish community diversity in the Daqing River system for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the context of integrating Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces. In this study, a field survey of the fish community was conducted at 34 sites in the Daqing River system during May-September and December of 2018 and October-November of 2019. Based on the survey results and historical literature, community structure, spatial distribution, diversity change and resource information on fishes in the Daqing River system were analyzed. The aims were to provide basic data for fish diversity conservation and ecosystem restoration of the Daqing River system and scientific evidence for the rational development of ecological resources and policies for conserving the ecological environment. Historically, a total of 85 fish species have been recorded in the Daqing River system, including 78 naturally distributed freshwater species from 59 genera, 17 families and 8 orders. Fish community structure of Daqing River system was characterized by high proportion of common fish species and low proportion of threatened and endemic species. However, only 42 fish species were collected during this survey, and only 33 species of them were naturally distributed in the river, and primarily dominated by small species. The average value of Shannon-Wiener diversity, Margalef richness and Pielou evenness indices of fish community in Daqing River system were 1.98, 1.14 and 0.81, respectively, indicating that the fish community diversity in Daqing River system was low. Spatially, the distribution of fish community in each region was relatively uniform. Overall, the fauna composition, ecological types and diversity of the fish community in the Daqing River system are currently declining compared with the historical data. The integrity of the fish fauna has been destroyed and species diversity is dramatically decreasing. The conflict between water demands from economic development and limited water resources is the primary factor resulting in the decline of fish species diversity. Additionally, habitat degradation, water pollution, dam construction and over-fishing are also driving forces that should not be ignored. To effectively improve fish diversity in the Daqing River system, we recommend maintaining an ecological flow, restoring river connectivity, enhancing water pollution management, stock enhancement and release, and forbidding fish capture.
周绪申,胡 振,孟宪智,张 浩,王立明,赵亚辉.2022.海河流域大清河水系的鱼类多样性[J].水生态学杂志,43(4):85-94.
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