基于景观格局的鄱阳湖生态经济区湿地时空变化
Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Wetland Landscape Patterns in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone
投稿时间:2020-12-24  修订日期:2022-07-12
中文关键词:湿地;景观格局;时空变化  鄱阳湖生态经济区
英文关键词:wetland  landscape pattern  temporal and spatial variation  Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone
基金项目:江西省自然科学基金(20151BAB203039);国家自然科学基金(41561107);江西省教育厅科技项目(GJJ13263)
作者单位
张 田 江西农业大学 国土资源与环境学院江西 南昌 330045 
余 敦 江西农业大学 国土资源与环境学院江西 南昌 330045江西农业大学 江西省鄱阳湖流域农业资源与生态重点实验室江西 南昌 330045 
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中文摘要:
      基于eCognition面向对象的最邻近域法,选取最优特征组合,对鄱阳湖生态经济区1995年、2005年和2015年遥感影像进行解译和分类提取;参照《湿地公约》及我国湿地分类,依据鄱阳湖实际情况及现有研究资料,同时考虑遥感影像解译过程中的实操性,将鄱阳湖生态经济区土地类型分为湿地和非湿地两大类,即河流、湖泊、沼泽、水田、库塘、林地、裸地、建设用地、草地共9类;进行鄱阳湖生态经济区3期影像分割时,选用分割尺度为50,形状指数为0.7,光谱紧致度为 0.3。进行鄱阳湖生态经济区3期影像分割时,选用分割尺度为50,形状指数为0.7,光谱紧致度为 0.3。采取动态度、质心模型和景观格局指数对20年间该地区湿地的动态变化特征进行分析,并采用地理探测器研究其变化驱动力。结果表明,对于湿地分类,eCognition面向对象的分类方法对湿地影像的提取效果良好;鄱阳湖生态经济区1995—2015年湿地总体面积减少,总体变化率为-22.7%;其中,减少最多的是天然湿地,共减少19.11万hm2;1995—2015年鄱阳湖生态经济区湿地景观指数表现为各斑块破碎度增加,景观多样性及均匀性呈倒“V”变化趋势。对于湿地变化的驱动力分析,地理探测器结果表明,人口密度、年均温及坡向均对湿地变化的空间分异有较强的解释能力,人口密度对湿地变化空间分异的解释能力高于年均温和坡向。研究结果可以为鄱阳湖生态经济区湿地保护提供理论依据及数据支撑,也可以为我国及其他地区淡水湿地保护提供经验借鉴。
英文摘要:
      In this study, the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone was selected for investigation, and changes in wetland landscape pattern in the area from 1995 to 2015 were explored by interpreting remote sensing images of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone in 1995, 2005 and 2015. At the same time, the driving forces of change were studied using geographic detectors. The objectives were to provide a theoretical basis and data to support wetland protection in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, and to gain experience for freshwater wetland protection in other regions of China. The interpretation and classification of the remote sensing images of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone in 1995, 2005 and 2015 was conducted by the eCognition object-oriented nearest neighbor method using the best feature combination. The dynamic degree, centroid model and landscape pattern index were used to analyze the dynamics of wetland change over the past 20 years. The results demonstrate that wetland image extraction by the eCognition object-oriented classification method was reliable, and the land types of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone consisted of two groups, wetland and non-wetland, and nine types: river, lake, swamp, paddy field, reservoir and pond, woodland, bare land, construction land and grass land. From 1995 to 2015, the total wetland area in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone decreased from 1 257 500 hm2 in 1995 to 972 500 hm2 in 2015, with an overall change rate of -22.7%. The area of natural wetland decreased the most, with a total decrease of 191 100 hm2. The wetland landscape index of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone showed that fragmentation of each patch increased, and landscape diversity and uniformity displayed an inverted "V" trend during 1995-2015. The centroid transition of the primary wetland types showed an obvious northward trend as wetlands in the south shrunk. Driving force analysis of wetland change using geographic detectors showed that population density, average annual temperature and slope direction were the primary drivers of wetland change, and the explanatory power of population density to the spatial differentiation of wetland change were higher than that of average annual temperature and slope direction.
张 田,余 敦.2022.基于景观格局的鄱阳湖生态经济区湿地时空变化[J].水生态学杂志,43(4):1-7.
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