日本鳗鲡游泳能力和游泳行为研究
Swimming Ability and Behavior of Anguilla japonica
投稿时间:2020-12-19  修订日期:2021-01-26
中文关键词:日本鳗鲡  感应流速  临界游泳速度  爆发游泳速度  闽江流域
英文关键词:Anguilla japonica  induction velocity  critical swimming speed  burst swimming speed  Minjiang River basin
基金项目:
作者单位
陈橙 福州大学土木工程学院福州350018 
闫慧 福州大学土木工程学院福州350018 
张挺 福州大学土木工程学院福州350018 
苏燕 福州大学土木工程学院福州350018 
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中文摘要:
      研究日本鳗鲡的游泳能力特性指标和游泳行为,为闽江鱼道水力设计提供依据,为日本鳗鲡的保护及渔业管理提供参考。在(22 ± 0.5)℃试验水温下,针对体长为20~45 cm的日本鳗鲡,利用自循环明渠变坡水槽,采用流速递增法开展鱼类感应流速、临界游泳速度和爆发游泳速度的试验研究。结果表明:1)闽江流域日本鳗鲡的感应流速为(3.3~4.8)cm/s,即(0.109~0.196)BL/s;临界游泳速度为(49.5~86.5)cm/s,即(1.87~2.33)BL/s;爆发游泳速度为(86.9~135.9)cm/s,即(2.98~4.06)BL/s。2)日本鳗鲡的绝对特征流速随体长的增加而增加,相对特征流速随体长的增加而减小。3)随着流速的递增,日本鳗鲡游泳形态分为5个阶段:顺流爬越、逆流转向静止、逆流上溯爬越、逆流冲刺后静止、逆流后退。建议鱼道内最小水流速度应大于10 cm/s,高流速区最大设计水流大于70.0 cm/s,小于112.0 cm/s。
英文摘要:
      Anguilla japonica, a typical warm-temperature catadromous fish, is the primary economic fish species of the Minjiang River basin. In this study, we explored the swimming ability and behavior of A. japonica by measuring the induction velocity, critical swimming speed and burst swimming speed, and analyzed the effect of body length on swimming ability. Our aim was to determine baseline swimming characteristics of A. japonica to provide guidance for the hydraulic design of fish passages. The test fish were collected from the Minjiang River, with a body length range of 21.4-43.5 cm and body weigh range of 11-62 g. The test was conducted by the stepped velocity method in a self-circulating sloped flume at a water temperature of (22±0.5)℃. Results show: (1) The induction velocity range of A. japonica in Minjiang River basin was (3.3-4.8) cm/s, i.e. (0.109-0.196) BL/s (BL: body length). The critical swimming speed was (49.5–86.5) cm/s, i.e. (1.874-2.331) BL/s. The burst swimming speed was (86.9-135.9) cm/s, i.e. (2.982-4.062) BL/s. (2) The absolute induction velocity, critical swimming speed and the burst swimming speed of A. japonica correlated positively with body length, while the relative induction velocity, critical swimming speed and the burst swimming speed were negatively correlated with body length. 3) A. japonica displayed five gaits as flow velocity increased: downstream swimming, countercurrent swimming turning to static immobility, upstream swimming, countercurrent sprinting, and countercurrent retreating. Based on the results, we recommend that flow velocity in the fish passage should not be lower than 10 cm/s when A. japonica is a target species, and that the highest flow velocity in the high flow area be maintained in the range of 70.0 cm/s -112.0 cm/s.
陈橙,闫慧,张挺,苏燕.2022.日本鳗鲡游泳能力和游泳行为研究[J].水生态学杂志,43(4):127-132.
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