长江和澜沧江源区夏季浮游植物分布特征研究
Distribution of the Summer Phytoplankton Community in Source Regions of the Yangtze River and Lancang River
投稿时间:2020-12-03  修订日期:2022-05-19
中文关键词:长江  澜沧江  浮游植物  群落结构  生物多样性
英文关键词:Yangtze River  Lancang River  phytoplankton  community structure  biodiversity
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费-江源地区水循环及水生态环境演变与适应性保护研究(CKSF2019292/SH)
作者单位
李 欢 长江水利委员会长江科学院 流域水环境研究所湖北 武汉 430010流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室湖北 武汉 430010 
赵伟华 长江水利委员会长江科学院 流域水环境研究所湖北 武汉 430010流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室湖北 武汉 430010 
赵良元 长江水利委员会长江科学院 流域水环境研究所湖北 武汉 430010流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室湖北 武汉 430010 
李 伟 长江水利委员会长江科学院 流域水环境研究所湖北 武汉 430010流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室湖北 武汉 430010 
曹小欢 长江水利委员会长江科学院 流域水环境研究所湖北 武汉 430010流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室湖北 武汉 430010 
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中文摘要:
      鉴于长江和澜沧江源区水生态环境问题日益突出的现状,而浮游植物是水生态系统物质循环和能量流动的重要环节。为了解长江和澜沧江源区浮游植物资源现状,通过对比分析2012—2016年长江和澜沧江源区浮游植物特征,并采用冗余分析(RDA)揭示浮游植物群落结构与9种环境因子间的关系。结果显示,长江源区共采集到浮游植物4门、44种(属),其中蓝藻门5种(属),绿藻门9种(属),硅藻门29种(属),隐藻门1种(属),当曲和直门达2014年的浮游植物种类数最多,为18种,五道梁2012年种类数最少,仅仅6种;浮游植物密度为2.53×104~94.00×104 个/L,最小值出现在2015年的当曲样点,最大值为2016年的唐古拉山样点;Shannon多样性指数、Margalef丰富度指数和Pielou均匀度指数分别为0.86~3.34、0.34~0.96、0.33~0.83,最小值为2012年的五道梁样点。澜沧江源区共采集到浮游植物4门、32种(属),其中蓝藻门5种(属),绿藻门6种(属),硅藻门20种(属),隐藻门1种(属),扎曲2014年鉴定出种类数最多,为14种;浮游植物密度为2.23×104~38.64×104 个/L,最小值为扎那曲(2015年),最大值为囊谦(2012年);Shannon、Margalef、Pielou多样性指数分别为0.86~3.21、0.36~0.78、0.25~0.91。长江和澜沧江源区的浮游植物密度总体较低,水体处于贫营养状态,浮游植物均匀度指数较高,种类分布较为均匀,群落结构较稳定。研究表明,温度、浊度、流速和含沙量是影响长江和澜沧江源区浮游植物群落结构的主要环境因子。
英文摘要:
      The source regions of the Yangtze River and Lancang River are in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and are an important ecological corridor of China. However, they are also sensitive and fragile areas with respect to changes in climate and ecology and there are increasingly serious problems in the water ecological environment in those source regions. The phytoplankton community plays an important role in nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the phytoplankton and water environment in the source regions of the two rivers from 2012 to 2016. The spatial and temporal distribution and diversity of the phytoplankton community were analyzed and compared, and the relationship between phytoplankton community structure and nine environmental factors were analyzed using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The study aimed to understand the status and accumulate baseline data on the phytoplankton resource in this important ecological corridor, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation, protection and management of the source region ecology. A total of 44 phytoplankton species from 4 phyla were identified in the source region of the Yangtze River, including 29 Diatoms species , 9 Chlorophyte species, 5 Cyanophyta species and 1 Cryptophyta species. The highest species richness occurred at the Dangqu and Zhimenda sampling sites in 2014, with 18 species, and the lowest occurred at the Wudaoliang sampling site in 2012, with 6 species. Phytoplankton density in the source area of the Yangtze River was in the range of 2.53×104-94.00×104 ind/L, with the minimum value at Dangqu sampling site in 2015, and the maximum value at Tanggula Mountain sampling site in 2016. The Shannon diversity, Margalef richness and Pielou evenness indices in the source area of the Yangtze River ranged from 0.86 to 3.34, 0.34 to 0.96, 0.33 to 0.82, respectively, with the minimum value at the Wudaoliang sampling site in 2012. A total of 32 phytoplankton species from 4 phyla were identified in the source area of the Lancang River, including 20 Diatoms species , 6 Chlorophyta species, 5 Cyanophyta species and 1Cryptophyta species, with the highest species richness (14 species) observed at Zhaqu sampling site in 2014. The range of phytoplankton density in the source area of the Lancang River was 2.23×104-38.64×104 ind/L, with the minimum value at Zanaqu sampling site in 2015 and the maximum value at Nangqian sampling site in 2012. The Shannon, Margalef and Pielou diversity indices in the source area of the Lancang River were, respectively, 0.86 -3.21, 0.36-0.78, and 0.25-0.91. Temperature, turbidity, flow velocity and sand content were the primary environmental factors affecting phytoplankton community structure in the source regions of the Yangtze and Lancang Rivers. In general, phytoplankton densities in the source regions of the Yangtze River and Lancang River were low, indicating an oligotrophic water body. The Pielou evenness index of the phytoplankton community was high, species distribution was relatively uniform, and phytoplankton community structure was stable.
李 欢,赵伟华,赵良元,李 伟,曹小欢.2022.长江和澜沧江源区夏季浮游植物分布特征研究[J].水生态学杂志,43(3):77-85.
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