新疆伊犁河谷湿地鸟类多样性及其栖息地变化
Bird Diversity and Habitat Changes in Ili Valley Wetland, Xinjiang
投稿时间:2020-02-25  修订日期:2021-03-09
中文关键词:伊犁河谷  鸟类多样性  栖息地  景观斑块  土地利用类型
英文关键词:Ili River valley  bird diversity  habitat  landscape patch  land use type
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金项目(2021D01A183);伊犁师范大学化学与环境科学学院天然产物化学与应用重点实验室开放课题(2020YSHXYB03);伊犁州科技计划项目(YZ200901011)
作者单位
袁新龙 伊犁师范大学生物与地理科学学院新疆 伊宁 835000伊犁州环境监测站新疆 伊宁835000 
沙尼娅·哈力霍加 伊犁州环境监测站新疆 伊宁835000 
加尔肯居马肯·爱特 伊犁师范大学化学与环境科学学院天然产物重点实验室新疆 伊宁 835000伊犁州环境监测站新疆 伊宁835000 
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中文摘要:
      调查伊犁河谷湿地鸟类多样性及其栖息地,为伊犁州直地区的生物多样性研究及生态环境管理提供科学参考。2016年6月至2019年11月,采用样线法和样点法,结合历史文献资料及景观斑块分析法,分析伊犁河谷河流典型湿地鸟类多样性及其栖息地变化。记录到伊犁河谷湿地鸟类物种99种,隶属于17目40科。雀形目占调查鸟类种属的34.3%,其次是鸻形目、雁形目,3者占比为60%,是湿地的优势群类。隶属古北界的鸟类占总种属的70.7%,广布种占25%,东洋界占3%。夏候鸟最多,占50.0%,其次是留鸟,占35%,冬候鸟和繁殖鸟各占6%,旅鸟占3%。伊犁河谷湿地现有鸟类多样性与历史资料对比下降明显。主要原因是40多年来,鸟类的主要栖息地——伊犁河谷湿地面积锐减,景观斑块破碎化严重及人类活动增强。2018年人为土地利用斑块数量由2000年的258增加到了460。面积大于10 000 hm2的景观斑块数目从2000年的7减少为2018年的4,景观破碎化程度增强。伊犁河谷湿地及其鸟类现状不容乐观,亟待全面调查并采取适宜的应对之策。
英文摘要:
      Bird diversity is an important ecological index for evaluating the health status of wetland ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the community diversity of birds and habitat alteration in the Ili River valley wetland. Our aim was to provide a scientific reference for managing the biodiversity and ecological environment of Ili Prefecture, Xinjiang. From June 2016 to November 2019, bird populations and habitats were investigated using the transect census and point count methods, combined with historical records and landscape patch analysis for the period 2000 to 2018. A total of 99 wetland bird species from 40 families and 17 orders were recorded in the wetland, with dominance by Passeriformes, Charadriformes and Anseriformes that accounted for 60% of the total species. The avian fauna was composed of 70 Palearctic species (71%), 25 Eurytopic species (25%) and 3 Asian species (3%). According to residency and migratory status, the birds were composed of summer migratory birds (50%), winter migratory birds (6%), resident birds (35%), passing birds (3%) and breeding birds (6%). During the period from 2000 to 2018, the number of land use patches increased from 258 to 460, and the number of landscape patches with areas larger than 10 000 hm2 decreased from 7 to 4, indicating severe landscape fragmentation. The bird diversity in the Ili River valley wetland has declined significantly compared to historical records. The primary factors are the sharp decline in Ili valley wetland area, severe fragmentation of landscape patches, and the increase in human activity over the past forty years. In summary, the current outlook for the Ili River valley wetland and its bird community is not optimistic, and a comprehensive investigation is urgently needed to support implementation of appropriate countermeasures.
袁新龙,沙尼娅·哈力霍加,加尔肯居马肯·爱特.2022.新疆伊犁河谷湿地鸟类多样性及其栖息地变化[J].水生态学杂志,43(3):57-62.
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