环境DNA技术及在鱼类监测中的应用
Review of Environmental DNA Detection Methods and Their Application to Fish Monitoring
投稿时间:2021-03-04  修订日期:2021-05-13
中文关键词:eDNA  鱼类多样性  鱼类监测
英文关键词:eDNA technology  fish diversity  fish monitoring
基金项目:科技部“典型脆弱生态修复与保护研究”重点研发项目(2016YFC0500206)
作者单位
沈梅 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
肖能文 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
卢林 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
罗遵兰 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
史娜娜 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
孙光 中国环境科学研究院北京100012 
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中文摘要:
      开展鱼类监测对鱼类多样性保护具有非常重要的意义。环境DNA(eDNA)技术使得鱼类调查更加省时省力、节约成本、无损伤,在鱼类监测中被广泛使用。文章从环境DNA技术及其优缺点、技术流程及方法、国内外研究现状以及该技术的未来展望4个方面综述。eDNA技术存在着一定的缺陷,不能完全取代传统方法。eDNA技术包含了样品的采集及处理、eDNA提取、eDNA扩增、测序和生物信息学分析几个主要步骤,每个步骤又可采取不同的实验方案,进而影响eDNA的检测效率。eDNA技术主要应用于鱼类物种多样性监测、入侵物种检测、濒危物种检测和鱼类生物量的估算等方面。虽然国内eDNA的起步不晚,但相比国外研究方向较为单一,研究深度不高,需要进一步重视。
英文摘要:
      Fish resources are declining sharply due to the impact of human activities and fish monitoring is crucial for the protection of fish diversity. Traditional fish monitoring methods can harm fish, the investigation workload is heavy and the investigator must have professional morphological knowledge. Environmental DNA (eDNA) technology is a new method widely used for fish surveys and has the advantages of speed, low cost and no negative impact on fish. In this paper, we reviewed the basic theory eDNA, its advantages and disadvantages, described the process of fish monitoring with eDNA, summarized progress at home and abroad and, finally, examined the outlook for using this technology for fish monitoring. The eDNA technique for fish monitoring suffers from cross-contamination and species morphology is not observed, so it cannot completely replace traditional methods. The entire process of using eDNA technology for fish surveys includes sample collection and processing (precipitation, centrifugation and filtration), eDNA processing (extraction, amplification and sequencing) and bioinformation analysis. Each step in the process is necessary and can affect the detection efficiency of fish eDNA. At present, investigators from many countries have developed a rich and comprehensive set of applications for using eDNA technology to monitor fish resources, such as biodiversity monitoring, biomass estimation, detection of invasive and endangered species, and new applications are constantly emerging. While research on eDNA technology in China is not too late, the domestic research direction has been relatively narrow and the research program should be expanded and intensified.
沈梅,肖能文,卢林,罗遵兰,史娜娜,孙光.2022.环境DNA技术及在鱼类监测中的应用[J].水生态学杂志,43(2):133-141.
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