太子河河流等级对鱼类群落结构及环境因子的影响
Effects of Stream Order and Environmental Factors on Fish Community Structure in the Taizi River Basin
投稿时间:2020-11-02  修订日期:2021-03-07
中文关键词:河流等级  环境因子  物种多样性  鱼类群落结构
英文关键词:stream order  environmental factors  species diversity  fish community structure
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41977193);辽宁省“兴辽英才计划”项目(XLYC1807228);科技部基础资源调查专项(2019FY101704)
作者单位
崇祥玉 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院辽宁省水生生物学重点实验室辽宁 大连 116023 
宋碧曾 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院辽宁省水生生物学重点实验室辽宁 大连 116023 
梁珊 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院辽宁省水生生物学重点实验室辽宁 大连 116023 
汪冰 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院辽宁省水生生物学重点实验室辽宁 大连 116023 
殷旭旺 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院辽宁省水生生物学重点实验室辽宁 大连 116023 
孔维静 中国环境科学研究院流域水生态保护技术研究室 北京 100012 
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中文摘要:
      河流等级是一种用于评价河流生物多样性及环境特征的重要分类标准。以太子河流域为研究区域探究河流等级与鱼类群落分布之间的关系以及鱼类群落分布特征与环境因子之间的响应关系,并将太子河主要支流作为独立流域单元进行相同等级河流之间鱼类群落分布差异的比较。共设置125个点位,分3次调查鱼类群落和水环境理化特征,调查共采集到鱼类18 883尾,分属23科60种,洛氏鱥、宽鳍鱲、北方条鳅、棒花鱼为优势种,分别占鱼类总数的35.52%、8.58%、6.63%、5.53%。太子河流域鱼类群落结构在不同河流等级之间有显著差异,指示种分析表明洛氏鱥与北方条鳅是上游河段的指示种,短须颌须鮈与东北雅罗鱼是中游河段的指示种,?、大鳞副泥鳅及鰕虎鱼类是下游河段的指示种;摄食功能群在各级河流也有显著差异,杂食性鱼类的比例及物种数在三级河流和五级河流较高,昆虫食性的鱼类在一级河流和二级河流比例较高,昆虫食性鱼类的物种数在五级河流较高。河流等级对鱼类群落的物种丰富度和多样性水平有显著影响(F = 3.644,P = 0.008;F = 2.543,P = 0.043),最大值出现在三级河流。各等级河流之间总氮和氨氮有显著差异;相同等级河流之间电导率、水温和氨氮等环境因子存在显著差异。太子河流域不同河流等级鱼类群落结构有显著的差异,相同等级河流的鱼类分布特征也有显著差异,但这种鱼类群落结构的空间差异性不受水环境理化因子的影响。
英文摘要:
      In river ecology research, stream order is an important classification standard for evaluating biodiversity and the environmental characteristics of a river. In this study, the Taizi River basin was selected for research, and we investigated the relationship of stream order to the fish community structure and the response of the fish community to environmental factors. The primary tributaries of Taizi River were treated as independent watershed units for comparing fish community structure in streams of the same order. The Taizi River basin was divided into five levels of stream order, and a total of 125 sampling sites were set for surveying the fish communities and measuring water environment factors. A total of 18,883 individuals from 60 species of 30 families were collected during three fish surveys, with dominance by Phoxinus lagowskii, Zacco platypus, Nemachilus nudus and Abbottina rivularius, accounting for 35.52%, 8.58%, 6.63% and 5.53% of the total species, respectively. There were significant differences in fish community structure between rivers of different stream order in the Taizi River basin. Indicator species were Phoxinus lagowskii and Nemachilus nudus in upstream segments, Gnathopogon imberbis and Leuciscus waleckii in midstream segments; and Hemiculter leucisculus, Paramisgurnus dabryyanus, and Gobiidae sp. in downstream segments. There were also significant differences in feeding functional groups in rivers of different stream order. The species number and proportion of omnivorous fishes were higher in third- and fifth-order rivers; insectivorous fishes made up a higher proportion in first- and second-order rivers, and the number of fish species was higher in fifth-order rivers. Stream order also significantly affected fish community species richness and diversity, with the highest diversity and richness in third-order streams (F = 3.644, P = 0.008; F = 2.543,P = 0.043). There were significant differences in total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in streams of different order. However, conductivity, water temperature, ammonia nitrogen and other environmental factors varied significantly among streams of the same order. To summarize, there were significant differences in the structure of the fish community in streams of different order in the Taizi River basin and significant differences in the fish community were also observed in streams of the same order. However, spatial differences in fish community structure were not significantly affected by the physical and chemical factors of the aquatic environment.
崇祥玉,宋碧曾,梁珊,汪冰,殷旭旺,孔维静.2022.太子河河流等级对鱼类群落结构及环境因子的影响[J].水生态学杂志,43(2):86-94.
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