基于底栖动物多样性恢复的减脱水河段生态流量核算
Establishing the Ecological Flow of Dewatered River Reaches based on Restoration of Macroinvertebrates Diversity
投稿时间:2020-07-30  修订日期:2020-10-18
中文关键词:生态流量  底栖动物  引水式小水电  减脱水河段
英文关键词:ecological flow  macroinvertebrate  small diversion-type hydropower station  dewatered river reaches  
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题-河库系统生态需水核算及调控技术(2017YFC0404502)
作者单位E-mail
赵伟华 长江科学院流域水环境研究所流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室武汉430010 zwh820305zwh@163.com 
杜琦 长江科学院流域水环境研究所流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室武汉430010  
郭伟杰 长江科学院流域水环境研究所流域水资源与生态环境科学湖北省重点实验室武汉430010  
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中文摘要:
      鉴于世界范围内生态流量核算方法众多,不同方法计算获得的生态流量大小也不尽相同,为了研究我国南方山区中小河流的生态流量大小,以澜沧江支流景谷河引水式电站形成的减脱水河段为研究区域,根据底栖动物的丰度、生物多样性对适宜栖息地水深、流速的需求,2018年4月和9月,在景谷河零级和三级电站之间的减脱水河段设置20个采样点, 底栖动物以定性采集为主;将底栖动物栖息地类型定义为深潭、深流、浅濑和边滩共计4种生境类型,采用栖息地模拟法建立了景谷河减脱水过渡区生态流量核算方法。结果显示,研究河段69.0%的底栖动物种类在边滩中出现,47.30%在浅濑中出现,边滩和浅濑是维持底栖动多样性的最优生境类型。模拟了13种工况下底栖动物最适栖息地面积的变化情况,最终确定景谷河减水河段底栖动物最适的生态流量需求为3.0~4.0 m3/s。研究表明,此方法适用于宽浅型的河道,获得的生态流量大于常用的水文学方法计算获得的生态流量值,能切实反映底栖动物栖息地的实际水量需求,可为以水生生物多样性为保护目标的生态流量核算提供了参考。
英文摘要:
      At present, there are many methods used around the world for establishing the ecological flow, and the flow obtained varies with method. In this study, we explored ecological flow accounting for small and medium-sized rivers in the mountainous areas of southern China, based on habitat requirements for macroinvertebrates. The objective was to provide a reference for setting the ecological flow of small hydropower stations. The Jinggu River, a tributary of Lancang River with several reaches dewatered by power station diversions, was selected for a case study. The habitat simulation method used to establish the ecological flow provides a water depth and flow suitable for maintaining macroinvertebrate abundance and biodiversity. Water depth and velocity, and the area and distribution of four habitat types, were simulated under 13 flow conditions. Macroinvertebrate sampling was carried out in April and September of 2018. Of all the macroinvertebrate species observed, 69.0% occurred at point bars and 47.3% in riffles. Thus, point bars and riffles are the optimal habitat types for maintaining macroinvertebrate diversity. Changes in these two habitats were simulated under the 13 flow conditions, and the optimal ecological flow for macroinvertebrates in the reduced flow sections of Jinggu River was 3.0-4.0 m3/s. This method is suitable for wide, shallow rivers and, while it gives an ecological flow higher than that calculated by the commonly used hydrological method, it reflects the actual habitat requirements for maintaining the macroinvertebrate community. This article provides a reference for establishing the ecological flow using aquatic biodiversity as the protection objective.
赵伟华,杜琦,郭伟杰.2020.基于底栖动物多样性恢复的减脱水河段生态流量核算[J].水生态学杂志,41(5):49-54.
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