面向鸟类栖息地保护的洪泽湖湿地植被种植方案研究
Optimized Scheme for Planting Aquatic Plants to Protect Waterfowl Habitat in Hongze Lake Wetland
投稿时间:2020-07-07  修订日期:2020-10-16
中文关键词:水生植物  鸟类  水位过程  种植设计
英文关键词:aquatic plant  waterbirds  water level  planting scheme
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0404504);国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目(51721093)
作者单位E-mail
邱新天 北京师范大学环境学院 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京100875 201821180083@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
尹心安 北京师范大学环境学院 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京100875  
刘洪蕊 北京师范大学环境学院 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京100875  
秦敬岚 北京师范大学环境学院 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京100875  
王宇喆 北京师范大学环境学院 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京100875  
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中文摘要:
      依据鸟类及植物对水位过程的需求提出植物种植方案,为洪泽湖湿地植被恢复及鸟类栖息地保护提供科学依据。选择须浮鸥(夏候鸟)和白骨顶(冬候鸟)为示范保护鸟类,莲、菰、芦苇、水蓼等4种挺水植物和眼子菜、苦草、黑藻等3种沉水植物作为种植对象,依据洪泽湖湖底高程,结合不同植物的生长水位要求以及植物发挥鸟类觅食及遮蔽两大功能的水位需求,水位过程简化为以3月和7月的水位值确定,将调整3月和7月水位值作为水位过程管理的手段。结果表明:历史极端水位过程下,仅能种植芦苇1种水生植物,对鸟类栖息地恢复作用有限;多年平均水位过程下,可种植植物增加到4种,包括2种挺水植物莲、芦苇和2种沉水植物眼子菜、苦草,有利于扩展鸟类栖息地面积,但可种植植物种类及面积依然有限;优化水位过程下,能种植全部7种水生植物,并有效恢复鸟类栖息地面积。在洪泽湖实际水位调控中,应尽量避免极端水位过程的出现。在多年平均水位过程下,降低3月水位,是优化植物种植方案的有效措施。
英文摘要:
      Planting aquatic plants is an important means for restoring waterfowl habitat. The planting design of aquatic plants for lakes has been primarily aimed at water quality control. Little research has focused on waterfowl habitat protection and the effect of water level on planting success. In this research, we took Hongze Lake National Wetland Nature Reserve as a case study and proposed a new planting scheme for aquatic plants used to restore waterbird habitat that considered lake water level along with plant growth characteristics. The summer bird Chlidonias hybrida and winter bird Fulica atra were selected as the target species and seven aquatic plants were selected for planting, based on the needs of local waterbird habitat and plant conditions in the reserve. Based on the lake bottom elevation of Hongze Lake and the water level requirements of different plants, the planting scheme was intended to provide waterbird forage and shelter under three water level regimes:historical extreme water level (lowest in July and highest in March), historical average water level and the optimal water level. Only one aquatic plant, Phragmites australis, was suitable for planting at the historical extreme water level and had little effect on the restoration of waterbird habitat. Four species were suitable at the historical average water level and were beneficial for waterbird habitat restoration. All seven species could be planted at the optimal water level and waterbird habit restoration was the most successful. Based on the water levels preferred by waterbirds and aquatic plants, we recommend that the water level of Hongze Lake should be regulated so as to avoid extremes. Decreasing the water level in March, with an otherwise average water level, is optimal for planting aquatic plants. This study provides a reference for restoring vegetation and protecting waterbird habitat in the Hongze Lake wetland.
邱新天,尹心安,刘洪蕊,秦敬岚,王宇喆.2020.面向鸟类栖息地保护的洪泽湖湿地植被种植方案研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(5):107-114.
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