鳙幼鱼4种典型游泳状态特性研究
Four Swimming Modes of Juvenile Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
投稿时间:2020-06-26  修订日期:2020-07-30
中文关键词:  突进游泳速度  临界游泳速度  游泳特性
英文关键词:Hypophthalmichthys nobilis  burst swimming speed  critical swimming speed  swimming characteristics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51709152, 51579136); 国家优秀青年科学基金项目(51922065);三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室开放课题(SXSN/4507)
作者单位
李 鸿 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
郭文韬 三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点实验室 中国长江三峡集团有限公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100 
何 鹏 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
刘炫赤 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
甘建政 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
谭红林 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
陈 磊 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
石小涛 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002 
谭均军 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地三峡大学湖北 宜昌 443002 
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中文摘要:
      研究鳙(Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)游泳行为特性与水流流速变化的响应关系,补充四大家鱼游泳特性指标,为四大家鱼资源保护、鱼类洄游通道建设提供参考依据。试验水温(23±0.5)℃,鳙幼鱼体长5.0~9.0 cm、体重2.5~11.5 g,游泳水槽300 mm×5 mm×75 mm,体积5 L。结果表明该体长范围鳙幼鱼的平均临界游泳速度为(0.468 ± 0.161)m/s,平均突进游泳速度为(0.672 ± 0.154)m/s,且绝对临界游泳速度和绝对突进游泳速度均随体长的增加而线性增加,相对突进游泳速度随体长的增加而线性减小;绝对突进游泳速度与绝对临界游泳速度存在如下关系:;鱼类游泳行为随水流流速变化存在4种游泳状态(顶流前进、顶流后退、顶流静止、顺流而下)相互穿插现象。以鳙幼鱼为过鱼对象的鱼道池室主流流速为16.0~46.5 cm/s,鱼道高流速区的竖缝、孔口等最佳流速为46.5~85.4 cm/s。
英文摘要:
      Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) is one of the four major Chinese carps and data shows that their populations have declined sharply because of hydraulic projects. Fish passages are often incorporated into hydraulic projects that interfere with fish migration and their design is based on fish swimming behavior. In this study, we explored the swimming ability of juvenile H. nobilis (5.0 - 9.0 cm, 2.5 - 11.5 g) and analyzed the relationship of swimming behavior to flow velocity. Swimming behavior was studied in a flume (300 mm×5 mm×75 mm) using stepped–velocity tests at a water temperature of (23±0.5)℃. The mean absolute critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of the test fish was (0.468±0.161) m/s and the average burst swimming speed (Uburst) was(0.672±0.154)m/s. Both speeds increased linearly with body length while relative burst swimming speed, measured as body lengths per second (BL/s), decreased linearly with increasing body length. The relationship between absolute burst swimming speed and absolute critical swimming speed was described as . During the burst swimming test, the fish used four swimming modes: swimming forward against the flow, swimming backward against the flow, static (not swimming) and swimming with the current. In fishways targeting bighead carp, we recommend a flow velocity range 16.0 – 46.5 cm/s in fishway pools and slot and orifice velocities in the range 46.5 – 86.4 cm/s. The results of this study add to our knowledge about the swimming characteristics of bighead carp and provide a reference for protecting the four major Chinese carps and construction of fish migration channels.
李 鸿,郭文韬,何 鹏,刘炫赤,甘建政,谭红林,陈 磊,石小涛,谭均军.2022.鳙幼鱼4种典型游泳状态特性研究[J].水生态学杂志,43(2):95-101.
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