四大家鱼幼鱼响应模拟水轮机流道压力变化试验研究
Effect of Sudden Pressure Change in Turbine Passages on Juveniles of the Four Major Chinese Carps
投稿时间:2019-11-13  修订日期:2020-01-12
中文关键词:四大家鱼  水轮机  压力  气压损伤  模拟实验
英文关键词:Four Major Chinese Carps  turbine  pressure  barotrauma  simulated experiment
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51409151);国家自然科学基金青年基金(51809150)
作者单位
王煜 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
翟振男 长江电力股份有限公司湖北 宜昌 443002 
杨路通 贵州水投水务集团有限公司贵州 贵阳 550000 
石小涛 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002 
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中文摘要:
      研究鱼类对反击式水轮机流道内压力突变的响应,为水电站水轮机的结构优化和生态运行提供技术支撑。实验鱼为四大家鱼1龄幼鱼,体长(100±10)mm、体宽(6±2)mm,鱼体健康、鱼鳞完整;实验装置由变频真空泵、高压舱、压力表、连接气管、高速摄像机组成。对四大家鱼幼鱼分别进行负压承受实验(预设压力值分别为80、 60、40、20 kPa)、循环负压承受实验(预设压力值分别为80、 60、40、20 kPa)和压力梯度承受实验(预设压力值分别为40、20 kPa),测试鱼的行为状态和损伤状况;实验结束后,实验鱼被分别移入暂养水槽进行暂养,并观察记录其实验后1、4和12 h的自愈状态;最后解剖实验鱼,观察和记录其脏器损伤状态。结果表明:(1)四大家鱼幼鱼对水体中的压力陡降具有较强的敏感性,出现损伤主要发生在第1次压力陡降过程,损伤程度与最小压力值及压力变化梯度成正相关,负压循环次数的增加不会增加家鱼幼鱼受压力损伤的程度和死亡率;(2)压力最低值和压力梯度是家鱼幼鱼通过水轮机流道下行受到压力损伤的主要原因,随着压力最低值的降低和压力梯度的增大,家鱼幼鱼损伤的程度和死亡率上升;(3)生活在河流中底层的青鱼和草鱼对负压和压力梯度较生活在河流中上层鲢和鳙具有更好的耐受性,在进入水轮机流道前鱼类适应压力状态与鱼体通过水轮机受到压力损伤具有一定的相关性;(4)四大家鱼幼鱼受到压力损伤的阈值为20 kPa,当压力值小于或等于损伤阈值,家鱼幼鱼受到压力损伤。
英文摘要:
      In order to provide technical support for structural optimization and ecological operation of hydroelectric turbines, we studied the response of fish to the sudden pressure changes that occurs in turbine passages by simulating the pressure change in a pressure chamber. The test fish were healthy one-year-old juveniles of the four major Chinese carps (bighead, black, grass and silver) with intact scales, body length of (100±10) mm and body width of (6±2)mm. The experimental system consisted of a frequency conversion vacuum pump and pressure chamber with a pressure gauge, vacuum tubing and high speed camera. Experiments, carried out on each of the four carps with 10 replicates, were designed to study fish tolerance to three conditions encountered while passing through a turbine: (1) Exposure to low water pressure at preset values (80 kPa, 60 kPa, 40 kPa, 20 kPa) for 30 min, or until the test fish could not maintain its balance. (2) Exposure to water pressure cycling:from atmospheric pressure to low preset values (80 kPa, 60 kPa, 40 kPa, 20 kPa), repeated until the test fish could not maintain its balance. (3) Exposure to different pressure gradients, with pressure decreasing from atmospheric pressure to preset values (40 kPa, 20 kPa) at pumping rates of 300, 150 and 3 L/min to give the different pressure gradients. Video was recorded during the experiments to document the behavior and damage to test fish. After the experiments, fish were transferred temporarily to a tank for feeding and their healing was observed and recorded at 1 h, 4 h and 12 h. Finally, the test fish were dissected to observe any organ damage. Results show that: (1) The juvenile carps were sensitive to rapid drops in water pressure, damage occurred primarily during the first pressure drop and damage severity increased as the minimum pressure decreased, and as the pressure gradient increased. Additional pressure cycles did not increase the degree of injury or mortality of test fish. (2) A low minimum water pressure and high pressure gradient were the primary causes of injury and this will likely be the case when fish pass through a turbine. As the minimum pressure decreased or the pressure gradient increased, injury severity and mortality of juvenile carps increased. (3) Black and grass carp inhabit the river bottom and better tolerated low pressure and pressure gradients than silver carp or bighead carp that reside closer to the surface. There was a certain correlation between the ability of acclimating pressures before entering the turbine passage and the pressure injury on fish when it pass through the turbine passage. (4) The threshold pressure for injury to juveniles of the four major Chinese carps was 20 kPa.
王煜,翟振男,杨路通,石小涛.2021.四大家鱼幼鱼响应模拟水轮机流道压力变化试验研究[J].水生态学杂志,42(2):86-93.
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