南水北调中线总干渠浮游植物群落特征及水环境评价
Phytoplankton Community Characteristics and Water Environment Assessment in the Main Channel of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project
投稿时间:2019-06-28  修订日期:2021-05-15
中文关键词:南水北调中线  浮游植物  环境因子  水环境评价
英文关键词:middle route of South-North Water Diversion Project  phytoplankton  environment factors  water environment assessment
基金项目:国家水专项十三五课题(No:2017ZX07108-001)
作者单位
张春梅 大连海洋大学辽宁 大连 116023中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
米武娟 中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
许元钊 大连海洋大学辽宁 大连 116023中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
宋高飞 中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
朱宇轩 中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
毕永红 中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室湖北 武汉 430072 
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中文摘要:
      为了解南水北调中线总干渠浮游植物群落结构及其水环境状况,于2018年上、下半年开展了浮游植物群落与水体理化指标的调查监测,从河南南阳南水北调中线陶岔渠首至终点北京团城湖共设置11个采样点,通过水体理化指标、多样性指数、硅藻商与硅藻属指数(GI)进行水质评价。结果显示,总干渠共检出浮游植物6门、84种,其中上半年4门、46种,下半年6门、57种;绿藻、硅藻和蓝藻占群落藻类物种总数的91.38%~95.65%,隐藻、甲藻、裸藻种类相对少,占比仅4.34%~6.88%。优势种主要有空星藻、衣藻、极小曲壳藻和桥弯藻等13种(优势度Y≥0.02)。群落细胞密度为3.58×104 ~3.43×107 个/L,下半年极显著高于上半年(P<0.01),空间上从南到北呈逐渐上升趋势,但各样点间无显著差异。叶绿素a含量为1.10~13.80 μg/L,上、下半年无显著差异。Shannon-Wiener指数下半年极显著高于上半年(P<0.01),空间上从南到北也无显著差异。硅藻属指数与硅藻商变化显示时间的一致性,团城湖处GI显著高于其他位点(P<0.05),陶岔渠首处硅藻商显著高于其他样点(P<0.01)。RDA分析表明,水温是影响浮游植物时空分布的主要因子。基于浮游植物群落结构特征分析,确认南水北调中线总干渠水体总体处于β-中污状态,水体为贫-中营养型。鉴于藻类对水环境变动的敏感性以及南水北调中线水质稳定的重要性,需要持续关注总干渠的藻类群落动态。
英文摘要:
      The middle route of the North-to-South Water Diversion Project serves important social, economic and ecological benefits to 20 cities and 100 counties along the project. However, water quality conservation in the primary channel is always challenging because of the complexity of the surrounding water environment. In this study, phytoplankton community structure and water environment parameters were investigated in the main stem of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in May and August 2018. From the Taocha Channel in Henan Province to Tuancheng Lake in Beijing, 11 sampling stations were set from the south to north. The resulting data was analyzed for spatiotemporal patterns in the phytoplankton community and their relationships with water environment parameters. Further, the water quality of the channel was assessed based on indices of physicochemistry and phytoplankton diversity, the diatom quotient and the diatom generic index (GI). The aim of the study was to understand the water quality status and provide basic data for environmental conservation and water quality improvement in the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. A total of 84 phytoplankton species belonging to 6 phyla was identified, and 46 species of 4 phyla was detected in May and 57 species from 6 phyla were detected in August. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta were the dominant taxa, accounting for 91.38% to 95.65% of the total algae species, followed by Cryptophyta, Dinophyta and Euglenophyta (4.34%-6.88%). Thirteen species had dominance values of Y≥0.02, including Coelastrum, Chlamydomonas, Achnanthes minutissimum and Cymbella. The cell density varied from 3.58×104 cells/L to 3.43×107 cells/L and the density was significantly higher in August than in May (P<0.01). In terms of spatial distribution, cell density increased gradually from south to north but the difference was not significant. The range of Chl-a concentration was 1.10 - 13.80 μg/L, with no significant temporal or spatial differences. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in August was significantly higher than in May (P<0.01), but displayed no spatial difference. The variation of the GI and diatom quotient displayed temporal consistency, but spatially, the diatom quotient at Taocha station was significantly higher than at other sites (P<0.01) and the GI in Tuancheng Lake was significantly higher than at other sites (P<0.05). Redundancy analysis (RDA) shows that water temperature was the primary factor affecting the spatiotemporal distribution of phytoplankton. Based on the analysis of algal community structure, the water body was classified as moderateβ-type pollution and the trophic status was oligotrophic-mesotrophic. Because of the sensitivity of algae to variation in water quality and the importance of maintaining water quality, algal community dynamics in the main channel should be continuously monitored.
张春梅,米武娟,许元钊,宋高飞,朱宇轩,毕永红.2021.南水北调中线总干渠浮游植物群落特征及水环境评价[J].水生态学杂志,42(3):47-54.
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