海南省外来淡水生物入侵现状、危害及防控策略
Invasion Status, Harm, and a Prevention-Control Strategy for Exotic Freshwater Organisms in Hainan Province
投稿时间:2019-04-30  修订日期:2020-06-16
中文关键词:外来淡水生物  入侵  防控策略
英文关键词:exotic freshwater species  invasion  prevention and control strategy
基金项目:农业基础性长期性科技工作项目(ZX08S220259),“两江一河”鱼类与环境监测项目
作者单位E-mail
董杨 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126 35639034@qq.com 
申志新 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126  
王海桂 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126  
李高俊 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126  
蔡杏伟 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126  
李芳远 海南省海洋与渔业科学院海南 海口 571126  
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中文摘要:
      由于特殊的地理环境和良好的气候条件,海南省已经成为我国外来生物入侵的重灾区之一,许多外来淡水生物在海南均有分布。2016-2018年,采用野外调查的方式对万泉河、南渡江、昌化江等海南主要河流外来淡水生物的分布和种类进行了初步调查。经过调查发现,目前海南共有43种外来淡水水生生物,其中鱼类31种、爬行类2种、两栖类1种、软体动物2种、甲壳动物3种,淡水植物4种。根据调查,海南省外来淡水生物的主要入侵途径是水产养殖引种,主要危害是捕食和竞争,提出了健全管理制度、加大科学研究和人才培养、加强宣传等防控策略。
英文摘要:
      Due to a special geographical environment and ideal climatic conditions, Hainan Province has become a disaster area in China in terms of biological invasion. The number of species and biomass of exotic freshwater organisms that have invaded the natural waters of Hainan Province is increasing year by year, and harm to endemic species and the aquatic ecosystem is severe. From 2016 to 2018, a preliminary survey of the distribution and types of exotic freshwater organisms was carried out using field surveys in different sections of Wanquan River, Nandu River and Changhua River. Data from the field surveys was then used to analyze the species composition, invasion status, route of entry and harm to freshwater organisms in Hainan Province. A total of 43 invasive species were identified, including 31 fishes (72.09%), 4 plants (9.30%), 3 crustaceans (6.98%), 2 reptiles (4.65%), 2 mollusks (4.65%) and 1amphibian (2.33%). The invasion of freshwater exotics in Hainan has resulted mainly from aquaculture and the harm caused by invasive species includes a reduction in the biodiversity of native species due to predation and competition, spread of diseases, loss of genetic diversity and economic loss. Based on the results, we propose the following prevention and control strategies; : improving management systems, enhancing scientific research and professional training, educating the public and disseminating information about the harm caused by invasive species and the importance of preventing and controlling the invasion of exotic species.
董杨,申志新,王海桂,李高俊,蔡杏伟,李芳远.2020.海南省外来淡水生物入侵现状、危害及防控策略[J].水生态学杂志,41(3):85-91.
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