人工繁殖圆口铜鱼幼鱼游泳能力与游泳行为研究
Swimming Ability and Behavior of Artificially Propagated Largemouth Bronze Gudgeon(Coreius guichenoti)
投稿时间:2019-04-08  修订日期:2021-03-18
中文关键词:人工繁殖  圆口铜鱼  游泳能力  游泳行为
英文关键词:artificial propagation  Coreius guichenoti  swimming ability  swimming behavior
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51679126) ;湖北省创新群体项目 (2015CFA021) 及国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0800902)
作者单位
刘谢驿 三峡大学 生物与制药学院湖北 宜昌 443000三峡大学 三峡地区地质灾害与生态环境湖北省协同创新中心湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002 
黄应平 三峡大学 生物与制药学院湖北 宜昌 443000三峡大学 三峡地区地质灾害与生态环境湖北省协同创新中心湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002 
袁 喜 三峡大学 三峡地区地质灾害与生态环境湖北省协同创新中心湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002 
徐 勐 三峡大学 三峡地区地质灾害与生态环境湖北省协同创新中心湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002 
涂志英 三峡大学 生物与制药学院湖北 宜昌 443000三峡大学 三峡地区地质灾害与生态环境湖北省协同创新中心湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002 
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中文摘要:
      圆口铜鱼曾是长江上游的特有鱼类和主要经济鱼类,近年来数量急剧减少,主要原因之一就是水利设施修建对圆口铜鱼上溯产生了阻隔效应。为了给以圆口铜鱼为对象的过鱼设施设计提供参考数据,利用鱼类游泳能力测定装置,以人工繁殖的圆口铜鱼(Coreius guichenoti)幼鱼为实验对象,体重(3.05±0.99) g,体长(5.94±0.66)cm,采用递增流速法研究其游泳能力与游泳行为。结果表明,在(20±1)°C水温条件下,圆口铜鱼平均相对临界游泳速度(critical swimming speed, Ucrit)为(8.41±1.56)BL/s;其步态转换速度(gait transition speed, Uchg)与临界游泳速度呈线性正相关:Uchg = 0.63Ucrit + 0.21(P<0.01, R2=0.86);步态转换速度约为 0.63 Ucrit;摆尾频率(tail beat frequency, TBF)与进口流速(inlet velocity, Uin)呈线性正相关:TBF = 0.48 Uin + 2.53(P<0.01, R2=0.95);进口流速(inlet velocity,Uin)与步长(step length, SL)呈线性正相关:SL=0.11 Uin+0.41(P<0.01, R2=0.99)。实验鱼的摆尾幅度(tail beat amplitude, TBA)、冲刺次数、各进口流速下的摆尾时间百分比及稳定摆尾与非稳定摆尾比例,均随进口流速改变而变化。随流速增大,摆尾幅度呈现先增大、再减小、最后又增大的趋势;冲刺次数也是先增加、随后逐渐下降;摆尾时间百分比最初是快速增大,随后基本保持不变,流速增至 8 BL/s高流速时,再次随流速增加快速增大;当流速与临界游速比值(U/Umax)为 0.38 时,实验鱼出现非稳定摆尾行为;比值为 0.58 时,实验鱼稳定摆尾行为与非稳定摆尾行为比例为 1:1;比值增至 0.78 时,稳定摆尾行为消失,主要表现为冲刺。人工繁殖的圆口铜鱼游泳能力较强,本研究推测人工繁殖的圆口铜鱼游泳能力强于野生圆口铜鱼。在不同流速下,实验鱼通过改变游泳行为以保持更长的游泳时间及距离。研究结果可为圆口铜鱼鱼道建设以及养殖流速优化提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti), a typical anadromous fish, is an important economic fish species once commonly found in Yangtze River, but populations have been rapidly declining in recent years. One of the important factors is the interruption of the natural connection of the rivers by dams. Swimming is crucial for the survival and reproduction of fish and, in this study, we characterized the swimming ability and behavior of the artificially propagated C. guichenoti using a stepped velocity test. The objectives were to better understand C. guichenoti swimming and provide data for the design of effective fishways. Artificially propagated juvenile C. guichenoti of body weight (3.05±0.99) g and body length (5.94±0.66) cm were tested at (20±1 oC) in a flume-type respirometer equipped with a high speed video camera system to record swimming behavior. The average relative critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was (8.41±1.56) BL/s and the gait transition speed (Uchg) of 0.63 Ucrit was positively correlated with the critical swimming speed, Uchg=0.63Ucrit+0.21 (P<0.01, R2=0.86). The tail beat frequency (TBF) was positively correlated with inlet velocity, (Uin); TBF=0.48Uin+2.53 (P<0.01, R2=0.95), as was step length (SL), SL=0.11Uin+0.41(P<0.01, R2=0.99). Tail beat amplitude (TBA), sprint time, percentage of tail beat time and the ratio of stable tail beat to unstable tail beat all varied with inlet velocity. With increasing flow velocity, the TBA increased first, then decreased and finally increased; the number of sprints increased first and then decreased gradually; the percentage of tail beat time increased rapidly at first, then remained basically unchanged, and increased rapidly again at the flow velocity of 8 BL/s; the unstable tail beat appeared when the ratio of flow velocity to critical swimming velocity (U/Umax) was 0.38. The ratio of stable tail-beat to unstable tail-beat was 1:1, when U/Umax was 0.58. When the ratio (U/Umax) increased to 0.78, the stable tail-beat behavior disappeared, and the swimming behaviour was mainly sprint. In general, the swimming ability of the propagated largemouth bronze gudgeon was stronger than that of the wild ones, and the swimming behavior was significantly correlated with flow velocities. C. guichenoti can alter swimming behavior in order to swim longer and farther at different flow velocities. The results can provide reference for the fishway construction of largemouth bronze gudgeon and the optimization of aquaculture velocity.
刘谢驿,黄应平,袁 喜,徐 勐,涂志英.2021.人工繁殖圆口铜鱼幼鱼游泳能力与游泳行为研究[J].水生态学杂志,42(2):94-100.
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