澜沧江源区浮游植物群落特征及其对水质的指示作用
Phytoplankton Structure and Water Quality Assessment in the Source Region of Lancang River
投稿时间:2019-02-22  修订日期:2019-12-27
中文关键词:澜沧江源  浮游植物  密度  多样性指数  水质评价
英文关键词:source region of the Lancang River  phytoplankton  cell density  species diversity  water quality assessment
基金项目:青海省水资源费专项资金项目“青海省三江源地区重点湖泊河段水生态调查”。
作者单位E-mail
朱海涛 青海省水文水资源勘测局青海 西宁 810001 zhuht6669@163.com 
湛若云 南水北调中线水源有限责任公司湖北 丹江口 442700 854940956@qq.com 
彭 玉 长江流域水环境监测中心湖北 武汉430010  
柴元冰 青海省水文水资源勘测局青海 西宁 810001  
陆 丹 青海省水文水资源勘测局青海 西宁 810001  
闵 敏 青海省水文水资源勘测局青海 西宁 810001  
贾 洁 青海省水文水资源勘测局青海 西宁 810001  
周明春 长江流域水环境监测中心湖北 武汉430010  
王英才 长江流域水环境监测中心湖北 武汉430010  
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中文摘要:
      为了探究澜沧江源区水生态现状与变化趋势,在干流囊谦段布置多昌、扎曲大桥及香达3个监测点,支流选择子曲的下拉秀、尕麻和野吉尼玛3个监测点,共计6个监测点位,于2016年7月(夏季)和10月(秋季)对澜沧江源区干流及其支流浮游植物进行了调查,以期为三江源区水生态保护与管理提供科学依据。结果表明:(1) 记录浮游植物7门、47种,其中硅藻(21种)和绿藻(14种)为主要成分,分别占总种类数的45%和30%;时空差异明显,夏季较秋季种类丰富,支流较干流种类丰富;优势种以硅藻为主,其中针杆藻(Synedra sp.)为两季度绝对优势种;(2)澜沧江源区浮游植物密度为5.4×104 ~230×104 个/L,平均密度为79×104个/L,硅藻贡献最大;时空差异明显,秋季高于夏季,支流高于干流;(3)浮游植物密度为5.4×104 ~230×104 个/L,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H)夏季为2.32,秋季为2.72,Pielou均匀度指数(J)夏季为0.73,秋季为0.70。分析显示,澜沧江源区水质介于极贫营养至中营养之间,处于轻度污染至无污染状态,水生态状况整体优良。
英文摘要:
      The source region of Lancang River, on the Tibetan Plateau of Qinghai province, is part of the famous Sanjiangyuan. While the region is an important water resource and ecological reserve for China, its ecology is fragile due to the severe climate and geography. Monitoring water quality and ecology in this sensitive area is necessary for effective management. We investigated the phytoplankton assemblage in the Lancang River source region and compared the main stem community with a tributary community. Water quality was then assessed based on three phytoplankton community parameters obtained from the investigation; cell density, Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index and Pielou evenness index. The aim of the study was to assess the hydroecology and explore trends in the source region of Lancang River and provide a reference for conserving and managing the ecology of the Sanjiangyuan region. In July (summer) and October (autumn) of 2016, quantitative and qualitative sampling of phytoplankton were carried out at 6 sites; three main stem sites in the Nangqian area (Duochang, Zhaqu bridge and Xiangda) and three tributary sites in the Ziqu area (Xialaxiu, Gama and Yejinima). The sampling sites were existing water quality monitoring sites that had been used for many years. Water environmental parameters measured at each sampling site included water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and transparency. A total of 47 phytoplankton species from 7 phyla were identified, dominated by Bacillariophyta (21 species) and Chlorophyta (14 species), accounting for 45% and 30% of the total species. The dominant species were mostly diatoms, and Synedra sp. was the absolute dominant species in both summer and autumn. Spatiotemporal differences in species richness were obvious; phytoplankton species diversity was higher in summer than in autumn and higher in the tributary than in the main stem. The range of phytoplankton density in the study area was 5.4×104 - 230×104 cells/L and averaged 79×104 cells/L. Phytoplankton density was higher in autumn than in summer and higher in tributaries than in the main stem. The Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (summer 2.32, autumn 2.72) and Pielou evenness index (summer 0.73, autumn 0.70) of the phytoplankton community in the source region of Lancang River indicates extremely oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions with little or no pollution and generally good water quality.
朱海涛,湛若云,彭 玉,柴元冰,陆 丹,闵 敏,贾 洁,周明春,王英才.2020.澜沧江源区浮游植物群落特征及其对水质的指示作用[J].水生态学杂志,41(1):16-21.
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