2000-2016年渤海赤潮发生规律及影响因素研究
Frequency of Red Tides in Bohai Sea and the Influence of Environmental Factors (2000-2016)
投稿时间:2019-02-12  修订日期:2020-12-01
中文关键词:渤海  赤潮  时空动态  生态演替  影响因素
英文关键词:Bohai Sea  red tide  spatial-temporal dynamics  seasonal succession  influencing factors
基金项目:天津市水产产业技术体系创新团队项目(ITTFRS2017005);天津市优秀科技特派员支持项目(18ZXBFNC00170); 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室开放基金项目(TJAE201805)
作者单位E-mail
窦勇 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384 douyonghero@163.com 
尚金沛 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384  
邵 蓬 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384  
高金伟 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384  
贾旭颖 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384  
周文礼 天津农学院水产学院 天津市水产生态及养殖重点实验室天津 300384  
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中文摘要:
      渤海近岸是赤潮高发区,频发的赤潮给水产养殖、近海旅游等海洋经济业态造成很大损失。目前关于渤海赤潮的研究相对孤立,缺乏系统性和综合性。本研究通过探究渤海赤潮发生的规律和影响因素,能为预报与防治赤潮灾害提供科学依据。利用历史统计数据和相关性分析方法,以2000-2016年渤海发生的赤潮事件为对象,研究了赤潮发生的时空动态、赤潮生物的生态演替以及与温度、营养盐、地理水文要素和厄尔尼诺-南方涛动事件(ENSO)的关联。结果表明:(1)时间分布上,赤潮高发期为5-8月,2-4月和11月发生频次较低;(2)空间分布上,赤潮集中发生在河北秦皇岛-唐山-辽宁绥中近岸、辽宁营口鲅鱼圈附近以及渤海湾近岸海域;(3)共检出赤潮生物40种,包括甲藻18种、硅藻18种、金藻2种、褐胞藻1种,另外还有原生动物1种,其中甲藻门的夜光藻(Noctiluca scintillans)、裸甲藻(Gymnodinium sp.)和亚历山大藻(Alexandrium sp.),金藻门的球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa)以及硅藻门的中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)、海链藻(Thalassiosira sp.)和角毛藻(Chaetoceros sp.)是渤海爆发频次较高的赤潮优势种,另外海区的赤潮生物存在着明显的生态演替现象;(4)温度和营养盐结构对赤潮爆发及其优势种演替起到关键作用,高通量的陆源污染物与弱化的水动力相互叠加为诱发赤潮提供了条件,而厄尔尼诺效应强度与赤潮发生面积呈显著正相关(P<0.05)。
英文摘要:
      The coastal region of Bohai Sea is a high incidence area for red tides. Frequent red tide occurrences threaten aquaculture and offshore tourism and caused great losses to the marine economy. In this study, we analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamics and ecological succession of the species responsible for red tides in Bohai Sea from 2000 to 2016 using historical statistics on red tides collected in Liaoning, Hebei and Shandong Provinces and Tianjin City. Correlations of red tides with temperature, nutrient levels, geographical and hydrological factors and the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were also analyzed. The objectives were to reveal the regularity and influencing factors for red tides in Bohai Sea, and provide a basis for forecasting and preventing red tide disasters. There were four primary findings: (1) The peak period for red tides was May to August, and the frequency was relatively low from February to April and in November; (2) Red tides occurred most frequently in the offshore areas of Qinhuangdao-Tangshan-Suizhong, Bayuquan and Bohai Bay; (3) 40 organisms were associated with the Bohai Sea red tides, including 18 species of Dinoflagellate, 18 species of Diatom, 2 species of Chrysophyte and 1 species of Protozoa. Noctiluca scintillans, Gymnodinium sp., Alexandrium sp., Phaeocystis globosa, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira sp. and Chaetoceros sp. were the most dominant red tide species, and the ecological succession of red tide organisms was obvious; (4) Temperature and nutrient dynamics were crucial to red tide outbreaks and seasonal succession of red tide species. High pollutant loading, combined with low hydrodynamic forces were found to favor red tide outbreaks and there was a significant positive correlation between El Nino intensity and the areal extent of red tides (P<0.05).
窦勇,尚金沛,邵 蓬,高金伟,贾旭颖,周文礼.2020.2000-2016年渤海赤潮发生规律及影响因素研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):141-148.
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