漳河山西段鱼类和大型底栖动物群落结构特征
Fish and Macrobenthos Community Structures in the Shanxi Section of Zhanghe River
投稿时间:2019-01-03  修订日期:2020-12-04
中文关键词:鱼类  大型底栖动物  聚类分析  多样性;漳河
英文关键词:fish  macrobenthos  cluster analysis  diversity
基金项目:山西省2016地表水跨界断面水质考核补偿专项省本级项目(山西省水生生物多样性调查评估)
作者单位E-mail
李超 山西省生态环境研究中心太原 030009 lichao45001@163.com 
王爱花 山西省生态环境研究中心太原 030009  
惠晓梅 山西省生态环境研究中心太原 030009  
杜世勋 山西省生态环境研究中心太原 030009  
郭新亚 山西省生态环境研究中心太原 030009  
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中文摘要:
      2017年对漳河山西段鱼类、大型底栖动物进行调查,分析物种组成、多样性及空间差异特征。结果显示:(1)共采集到鱼类24种,优势种为棒花鱼Abbottina rivularis 、麦穗鱼Pseudorasbora parva 、拉氏鱥Rhynchocypris lagowskii 、高体鳑鲏Rhodeus ocellatus、中华鳑鲏Rhodeus sinensis 、子陵吻鰕虎鱼Rhinogobius giurinus ;大型底栖动物44种,年平均密度256个/m2,优势种为中华锯齿米虾Neocaridina denticulate sinensis 、蜉蝣科稚虫Ephemeridae、扁蜉科稚虫Heptageniidae、椭圆萝卜螺Radix swinhoei 。(2)鱼类Shannon-Wiener指数、Margalef指数平均值分别为1.53、1.68,夏季多样性好于春、秋季;大型底栖动物Shannon-Wiener指数、Margalef指数分别为1.14、1.47,春季多样性好于夏、秋季。(3)聚类分析结果显示,鱼类组成分为清漳河浊漳河2组,清漳河鱼类优势种包括短须颌须鮈Gnathopogon imberbis 、拉氏鱥Rhynchocypris lagowskii ,浊漳河优势种为鳑鲏属Rhodeus的鱼类;大型底栖动物组成同样分为清漳河、浊漳河2组,清漳河平均密度及物种数低于浊漳河,其昆虫纲蜻蜓目物种数多于浊漳河,而昆虫纲鞘翅目、半翅目、广翅目以及甲壳纲、腹足纲、双壳纲、寡毛纲、蛭纲的物种数少于浊漳河。
英文摘要:
      The systematic investigation and evaluation of fish and macrobenthos communities has significant meaning for the ecological and environmental research of rivers. The Shanxi section of Zhanghe River, within the Haihe River basin, is composed of two independent rivers (Qingzhang River and Zhuozhang River), with a drainage basin area of 1.82×104 km2. In this study, we explored the community structures, diversities, and the temporal and spatial distributions of fish and macrobenthos in the Shanxi section of Zhanghe River. The objectives were to provide a scientific basis for biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration in the Shanxi section of Zhanghe River. The investigation was carried out at 10 sampling sites in spring (May), summer (July) and autumn (October) of 2017. There were three primary results: (1) A total of 24 fish species from 7 families and 4 orders were collected, with dominance by Cyprinidae (14 species). By river, 14 species were collected in Qingzhang River and 19 species in Zhuozhang River, with 9 species found in both. The number of species collected by season was 16 in May, 20 in July and 17 in October. The dominant fish species were Abbottina rivularis (Basilewsky, 1855), Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck et Schlegel, 1846), Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski, 1869), Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner, 1867), Rhodeus sinensis Günther, 1868 and Rhinogobius giurinus Rutter, 1879. A total of 44 macrobenthos species were collected, including 39 families, 17 orders and 6 classes. The number of species collected by season was 31 in May, 30 in July and 21 in October. The average macrobenthos density was 256 ind/m2, with species domination by Neocaridina denticulate sinensis Kemp, Ephemeridae, Heptageniidae, Radix swinhoei H. Adams. (2 ) The Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices of fish diversity in the Shanxi Section of Zhang River were, respectively, 1.53 and 1.68, with higher values in summer. The Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices of macrobenthos diversity were, respectively, 1.14 and 1.47, and diversity was higher in spring than in summer and autumn. (3 ) The fish community in Zhanghe River clustered into two groups, one in Qingzhang River and the other in Zhuozhang River. Gnathopogon imberbis (Sauvage et Dabry, 1874) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski, 1869) were the dominant species in Qingzhang River, while Rhodeus was the dominant species in Zhuozhang River. Macrobenthos also clustered into two groups by river. Both average density and number of macrobenthos species were lower in Qingzhang River than in Zhuozhang River. The number of Odonata species collected was higher in Qingzhang River, but the number of species collected in Zhuozhang River was higher for Insecta, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Oligochaeta and Clitellata. The difference in macrobenthos community structure was significantly influenced by nutrient inputs and water quality.
李超,王爱花,惠晓梅,杜世勋,郭新亚.2020.漳河山西段鱼类和大型底栖动物群落结构特征[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):122-132.
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