论恢复鱼类洄游通道规划方法
Planning Theory on the Restoration of Fish Migration Routes
投稿时间:2018-11-20  修订日期:2020-12-02
中文关键词:鱼类洄游通道规划  目标鱼类  优先排序方法
英文关键词:planning of fish migration passages  target fish  priority ranking method
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项(201501030);国家自然科学基金(51509271)
作者单位E-mail
董哲仁 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038 dongzr@iwhr.com 
张 晶 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038  
赵进勇 中国水利水电科学研究院北京 100038  
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中文摘要:
      由于鱼类洄游是大尺度的水生动物迁徙运动,恢复鱼类洄游通道规划应在流域尺度进行。探讨了恢复鱼类洄游通道规划要点,包括河流鱼类调查及评价方法、规划范围和流域恢复洄游通道目标量化方法,提出了恢复鱼类洄游鱼类通道项目的优先排序方法,并以保护和恢复多瑙河鲟规划作为典型案例进行了分析。恢复鱼类洄游鱼类通道项目的优先排序方法中,应根据工程性质、特点和当地自然条件确定优先排序准则,从而选择重点河段和重点工程,解决洄游通道中的关键问题。优先排序准则包括有效性、栖息地适宜性、效益/投资分析、自然保护区范围、预期物种多样性、鱼类生产力和栖息地面积等。在保护和恢复多瑙河鲟规划案例中,确定了多瑙河鱼类洄游障碍物的5个等级划分标准和评分等级,采用改进的多准则、多权重分级计分法,计算了各障碍物的排序指标。在671处障碍物中,29处为最优先排序,99处为中等排序,543处为低等级排序;其中,位于多瑙河中游和下游的铁门水电站Ⅰ、Ⅱ级是流域内的主要障碍物。
英文摘要:
      Planning the restoration of fish migration should be carried out at the watershed scale because fish migration is large-scale movement. In this study, the key points of planning for fish migration restoration were addressed: fish survey and evaluation methods, the planning scope and quantitative methods for developing objectives to restore fish migration. A method for ranking restoration projects is presented and a program for protecting and rehabilitating the Danube sturgeon was analyzed as a case study. Prioritization criteria should be determined according to engineering characteristics and local natural conditions. River sections and projects should be selected to solve key migration route problems. Prioritization criteria include effectiveness, habitat suitability, cost-benefit analysis (CBA), nature reserve range, species diversity, fish productivity and habitat area. In ranking priorities, the first thing is to identify the main migratory passages, especially the river sections where important anadromous fish must pass. Given the status of some fish and economic efficiencies, not all migration barriers on the main stem of a river should be removed to restore a migration route. The prioritization index (PI) values of fish migration restoration projects are calculated using graded score rankings. European and American countries have experience planning the restoration of fish migration channels and this experience can be useful. In the case study for protecting and rehabilitating the Danube sturgeon, five ranking criteria were used calculate scores for migratory barriers on the Danube River. An improved multi-criteria, multi-weighted scoring method was used to calculate the prioritization index of each obstacle. Among the 671 obstacles, 29 were ranked high priority, 99 were ranked moderate priority, and 543 were ranked low priority. The key obstacles in the basin were Iron Gates I and II located midstream and downstream in the Danube. The priority ranking method provides guidance for restoring fish migration. Where and when to carry out connectivity restoration projects depends on the technical possibilities of building fish passes or removing obstacles, and on national planning and investment for ecological restoration.
董哲仁,张 晶,赵进勇.2020.论恢复鱼类洄游通道规划方法[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):1-8.
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