流溪河水库底泥重金属污染记录
Long-term Change in Heavy Metal Pollution of Sediments in Liuxihe Reservoir
投稿时间:2018-11-09  修订日期:2020-07-29
中文关键词:流溪河水库  重金属污染  底泥  记录
英文关键词:Liuxihe reservoir  heavy metals pollution  sediment core  record
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U0733007);广东省科技计划项目(2013B080500022)
作者单位
张华俊 黔南民族师范学院旅游与资源环境学院, 贵州 都匀 558000暨南大学水生生物研究所, 广东 广州 518040 
薛现光 暨南大学水生生物研究所, 广东 广州 518040 
彭 亮 暨南大学水生生物研究所, 广东 广州 518040 
顾继光 暨南大学水生生物研究所, 广东 广州 518040 
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中文摘要:
      以流溪河水库为对象研究了我国南亚热带地区水库建库以来底泥重金属长期变化特征,结合已有历史资料、水质、水文及人类活动数据,分析了该水库底泥对人类活动的响应记录。于2013年3月在流溪河水库采集泥柱,测定泥柱重金属等指标,并对数据进行多元统计分析。结果表明:根据地积累指数和NYSDEC标准评价表明流溪河水库底泥早期重金属并未受污染,而在后期流溪河水库重金属污染逐渐加剧,部分达到中度污染程度。流溪河水库底泥对其流域内环境变化及人类活动做出了较好响应记录,与历史资料、文献记载具有较高吻合。底泥记录了水库5段重金属历史时期,第I时段较小的工农业规模不足以导致重金属污染;第II时段工农业规模相比前一时段有所增加但仍没有很大体量,也不足以导致水体大规模重金属污染,但底泥中重金属由于自然和人类活动长期输入开始缓慢富集;第III时段指示了人类活动对重金属污染的影响已开始显现出来,各重金属含量开始有较大增长。第IV时段初期底泥记录了一个显著的重金属含量上升过程,指示该时段重金属自然源已有限,重金属主要来源于人类活动产生的排放。底泥重金属在该时段含量变化比较大,指示该时段是污染最严重时期;第V时段指示了重金属污染得到较好控制,但由于前期污染积累,某些重金属含量仍要高于建库早期时段。该时段进入水库中的重金属主要仍是降低程度的人为污染及大气输送。古湖沼学方法能为水库水质有效管理提供长期数据支持及生态退化的预警服务。
英文摘要:
      Sediment records of heavy metal pollution are an indicator of anthropogenic activity, reflecting temporal pollution trends of the regional atmosphere and variations in the river basin environment. Studying these sediment records in reservoirs is a means of exploring long term variation of the aquatic environment. In this study, we analyzed the sediment record of heavy metal pollution in Liuxihe Reservoir. The results were combined with existing water quality and hydrology data, and multivariate analysis was applied to show how human activities in the river basin are reflected in the sediment record of the reservoir. The study provides important data for supporting the restoration and management of this important water body. Liuxihe reservoir, constructed in 1956, is located in northeastern Conghua City of Guangdong Province and is an important drinking water source for Guangzhou City. In March of 2013, undisturbed sediment core samples were collected in the deep pelagic zone of the reservoir and the physical index, heavy metal concentrations and mass loss on ignition at 550oC (LOI550) of the samples were measured. Heavy metal concentrations in the sediments were low and no heavy metal pollution was detected immediately after impoundment, but concentrations gradually increased, indicating pollution by heavy metals. The historical record of the heavy metals pollution in Liuxihe reservoir responded to environmental changes induced by human activities in the watershed and coincided well with historical data and documentation. Cluster analysis indicated five time periods in the sediment record of heavy metal pollution: Period 1 (1950s-1960s), unpolluted; Period 2 (1970s), slightly polluted; Period 3 (1980s), heavy metal pollution increased rapidly and the impact of human activities became apparent; Period 4 (1990s), significant increases in heavy metal concentrations and the most intense pollution, primarily due to the human activities; Period 5 (after 2000), heavy metal pollution is well controlled, but concentrations remain above those in the early period after the impoundment due to heavy metal accumulation in the sediment. Heavy metals in the fifth period were mainly from alleviated anthropogenic sources and atmospheric transport/deposition. These results provide long-term data support and can serve as an early warning system for water quality management of large reservoirs in south China.
张华俊,薛现光,彭 亮,顾继光.2020.流溪河水库底泥重金属污染记录[J].水生态学杂志,41(4):116-124.
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