青海湖1956-2017年水文变化特征分析
Qinghai Lake Hydrology, 1956-2017 Hydrological Characteristics of Qinghai Lake, 1956-2017
投稿时间:2018-10-30  修订日期:2020-06-24
中文关键词:青海湖  水位  面积  水量
英文关键词:Qinghai Lake  hydrology  water level  water area  water quantity
基金项目:青海省“高端创新人才千人计划”项目;青海省应用基础研究项目(2019-ZJ-7045)
作者单位E-mail
杜嘉妮 青海省水文水资源测报中心 西宁810001 290711990@qq.com 
李其江 青海省水文水资源测报中心 西宁810001  
刘希胜 青海省水文水资源测报中心 西宁810001  
温得平 青海省水旱灾害防御服务中心 西宁810001  
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中文摘要:
      研究青海湖水文变化特征,为区域水资源管理、生态保护提供基础。利用1956-2017年青海湖水文气象及遥感资料,分析了水位、面积、水量变化情况,并从湖泊补给的构成角度分析了变化原因。结果表明,青海湖平均水位3194.50m,1956-2004年湖水位呈下降趋势,由于降水量和入湖径流量增加,2005年水位开始回升;青海湖平均面积4350.61km2,经历了先萎缩、后扩张的变化过程;湖泊边界主要是东岸、西岸、北岸发生了变化,南岸基本无变化;水量仍然处于负平衡,年均亏损量1.5×108m3;湖泊补给水量构成中,湖面降水量、地表入湖径流量、地下水入湖补给量分别约占40.3%、43.5%、16.2%;2005年以来地表入湖径流量增加主要是由气候变化引起的,降水起主导作用。
英文摘要:
      Qinghai Lake, the largest inland saltwater lake in China, plays a vital role in maintaining the ecology of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, we analyzed the hydrological variation of Qinghai Lake based on hydrometeorological and remote sensing data for the period 1956-2017, focusing on water level, water area and changes in water quantity. Factors driving the variations were also considered from the perspective of the lake water balance. The objective was to provide a basis for managing water resources and protecting the ecology of the region. The mean water level of Qinghai Lake was 3194.50 m (sea-level elevation), but it decreased from 1956 to 2004 and then increased. Over the entire period, the water level of Qinghai Lake decreased by 2.06 m, an average annual decrease of 3.32 cm. The lake water area averaged 4350.61 km2 and fluctuated significantly, decreasing and increasing with water level. The eastern, western and northern lake shoreline changed, but the southern lake shoreline remained unchanged. The overall water balance was negative from 1956 to 2017, with an mean annual decrease of 1.5×108 m3. The primary water sources of Qinghai Lake are surface runoff (43.5%) and direct precipitation (40.3%), supplemented by groundwater (16.2%). Since 2005, surface runoff has increased and the increase is attributed primarily to climate change.
杜嘉妮,李其江,刘希胜,温得平.2020.青海湖1956-2017年水文变化特征分析[J].水生态学杂志,41(4):27-33.
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