贵州草海湿地牛蛙的分布现状及其生境选择特征
Distribution and Habitat Preferences of Rana catesbeiana in Caohai Wetland of Guizhou Province
投稿时间:2018-10-29  修订日期:2020-11-26
中文关键词:牛蛙  草海湿地  入侵物种  生境选择
英文关键词:Rana catesbeiana  Caohai wetland  invasive species  habitat selection
基金项目:贵州省科学技术基金项目(黔科合基础[2016]1141);贵州科学院青年基金项目(黔科院J合字[2016]6号);贵阳阿哈湖国家湿地公园管理处项目(2017);贵州省生物研究所科技计划项目(2017SWS02)
作者单位E-mail
吕敬才 贵州省生物研究所贵州 贵阳 550009 lvjingcaiwchq@163.com 
李亚龙 贵州省生物研究所贵州 贵阳 550009  
代亮亮 贵州省生物研究所贵州 贵阳 550009  
李振吉 贵州草海国家级自然保护区管委会贵州 威宁 553100  
魏 刚 贵阳学院贵州 贵阳 550005  
王春琴 贵阳学院贵州 贵阳 550005  
余志刚 贵州省生物研究所贵州 贵阳 550009  
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中文摘要:
      生物入侵已成为全球重要的环境问题,牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)入侵对当地生物多样性和水生生态系统造成了严重的危害。为掌握牛蛙在贵州草海湿地的种群分布现状及其对生境的选择特征,于2018年6-8月对草海湿地牛蛙的分布、种群数量及栖息生境进行了研究,并利用生境喜好系数和主成分分析法分析了其生境选择特征。结果显示,牛蛙主要分布于草海湿地上游的刘家巷及邻近区域,并向中、下游的顾家底、阳关山等区域扩散。通过分析牛蛙生境选择特征,发现牛蛙偏好选择的微生境植被类型为草地和沼泽草甸区域,水体类型为静水水塘和沟渠的区域,且具有水深较浅(≤0.6 m)、草本盖度适中(31%~60%)、草本高度较高(31~100 cm)、地表温度较高(21~25℃)、地表湿度较高(41%~80%)、离干扰源距离适中(101~500 m)的特点。主成分分析表明,水体类型、植被、水域深度、温度和干扰强度是影响牛蛙生境选择的重要因素。研究表明,牛蛙在草海湿地已占据一定的生态地位,并呈泛滥孳生趋势。应根据牛蛙的生物学特性(食性、繁殖特性、生境选择)判断,其已形成自然种群,应进行综合治理,避免其在草海湿地的进一步扩散,使其危害处在可控范围之内。
英文摘要:
      Biological invasion has become a global environmental concern and the invasive species, Rana catesbeiana, has greatly impacted local biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems in some parts of China. In this study, we investigated the distribution and habitat selection of R. catesbeiana in the Caohai wetland of Guizhou Province. The objectives were to explore population trends of R. catesbeiana in different habitats and provide data to support efforts to control R. catesbeiana populations. Field surveys of the distribution, population density, and preferred habitat were carried out from June to August 2018 at 17 representative sampling areas, covering all shallow waters and nearby areas of Caohai wetland. The Favorite Index (P) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study micro-habitat selection by R. catesbeiana. Results show that R. catesbeiana was distributed primarily in the Liujiaxiang and adjacent areas in the upper reaches of the wetland, but is spreading to the middle and lower reaches. P analysis indicates that R. catesbeiana prefers micro-habitats with grassland and swamp meadow vegetation, and shallow stagnant ponds and channels. Specific micro-habitat preferences include: water depth, ≤0.6 m; vegetation coverage, 31%-60%; vegetation height, 31-100 cm; surface temperature, 21-25oC; surface humidity, 41%-80%; distance from disturbance, 101-500 m. PCA showed that water type, vegetation type, water depth, temperature and disturbance intensity were the primary factors determining the habitat preferences of R. catesbeiana. In Caohai wetland, R. catesbeiana has become the dominant species, breeding populations have formed and the situation is getting worse. To avoid massive spreading and reduce the harm caused by R. catesbeiana to the Caohai wetland ecosystem, a comprehensive control strategy for R. catesbeiana should be developed, based on R. catesbeiana biology including dietary requirements, reproductive traits and habitat preferences.
吕敬才,李亚龙,代亮亮,李振吉,魏 刚,王春琴,余志刚.2020.贵州草海湿地牛蛙的分布现状及其生境选择特征[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):133-140.
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